The Unknown Donoso Cortes issue 125

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Ball Hugo. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Simona [] [] [] [] [] [] [] Neutrality According to International Law and National Totality in Four Articles, Simona Draghici, trans Plutarch Press. Documents Similar To Schmitt English. Columbia University Press. Nicholas Hiromura. Nimrod Haim Aviad. Priscilla Tran. Leopold Senghor. Anonymous eDvzmv. Benjamin Rosenzweig. Austin Sarat, Thomas R. Jhon Marlon Rosero Ceballos.

Khushi Maheshwari. Wajjahet Azeemi. Popular in Constitution. Tawana Holmes. Cervantes aims at suppressing the books of knight-errantry by ridiculing their extrava- gances, and he becomes famous with posterity, not for his transitory victory, but for the deep and witty pic- ture he gives of humanity, and the profound knowledge of the human heart he displays. Finally, Bossuet does not venture to call his history anything but a Discourse, and yet posterity has acknowledged Bossuet to be the father of what is known as the Philosophy of History.

Well, what those giants of Christian thought were in their respective ages and in their own spheres, the present work of the Marquis of Valdegamas, under the modest title of "Essays," is at the present day. Spain may well be proud of pro- ducing the illustrious author of these " Essays," a work which, without a controversial character, is the most glorious and sublime apology of religion, and the victorious refutation of Liberalism, Rationalism, and Socialism. And let it not be imagined that the varied and encyclopedic character of the work throws the matters of which it treats into confusion, or clogs the develop- ment of the author's plan in its majestic march.

No ; the author knows well what he has to do, and scans all with the eye of genius, which walks not on beaten paths, but opens fresh ones for itself If he paints, it is as a creative artist, who rises superior to all calculation, and discovers new aspects of truth and beauty by some method of his own. Our author is like the eagle, who discovers from the firmament he brushes with his wings immense horizons unseen by other birds. He is like the daguerreotype, which condenses into small space, without confusion, a group of innumerable objects.

The merit of Donoso Cortes, as far as the " Essays " are original and great, consists in raising the question to a height to which no other book carries it ; in extracting, like the bee, from the flowers spread over the field of human intelligence the wax and honey with which the hive of the " Essays " is stored ; and in the new aspect with which every question is invested from the first to the last page.

But I should scarcely have used the word question, for there is no such thing here, as it is not a work of con- troversy. From the point of view he occupies, Donoso does not argue nor hold discussions with error, to which he denies all rights. Donoso only teaches, and shows error its profound ignorance and contradictions, or points out its deformity to the world ; and in teach- ing one and the other with the authority of truth, whose eloquent organ he is, he needs not to, enter on a contest with error in order to conquer it.

Whilst other apologists go down into the arena, and contend with dubious victory, Donoso Cortes, like a giant, demolishes error by one stroke of his arm : witness his victory over Proudhon and Guizot, whose fairy edifices crumble tq earth under his analytical touch. The reader may now see how this book, without boast of erudition, without scientific pretensions, or ostenta- tion of great acquirements, possesses an encyclopedic character.

There is no dogma of faith, nor hierarchy in the Church, nor institution in society, nor important question in philosophy, nor epoch in history, nor human aberration in the speculative sphere of the schools, or in the practical life of nations ; which does not occupy its proper place in the vast plan of this work. As we have said, Donoso Cortes is theologian, philosopher, historian, politician, apologist ; but not as a scientific man who limits himself to one sole branch, but like a genius, who takes in at one glance all the orders of science and of life.

The mystery of faith, defended by dogmatic theologians in the limited circle of the schools, Donoso, without profaning it, presents on the scene of real life, and makes it the touchstone of science, and the founda- tion of society. In the Theological Places, the organisa- tion of the Church is dealt with from the data supplied by scripture and tradition. According to Donoso Cortes the Church is the mistress, the foundress, the life of society. He does not require, like the apologists, to demonstrate the existence of the miracles and the prophecies.

In his historical studies Donoso has discov- ered a sublime miracle in the Christianising of pagan society, and in the indefectibility of the Church, a pro- found prophecy in process of fulfilment for nineteen centuries. The autonomy of reason cannot be admitted 5 introduction: by him who reveres the infallibility of the teaching of the Church ; nor the noisiness of parliaments admired by him who stands astonished before the majesty of the Councils ; nor the regulations of the police lauded by him who bends in reverence before the grand law of charity.

Without the dogma of the fall, and the dogma of the rehabilitation, as they are explained in the " Essays," history is without explanation. The miracle of the Christianising of society lies patent before the eyes of men. Or, to use our a:uthor's own words — As God had no witnesses in the grand act of the creation of the heavens and the earth, He desires that man should witness a more sublime creation — the creation of Christian civilisation.

The foregoing is a slight sketch of the work now offered to the English-speaking public. We have made no extracts from it, for we would be afraid to profane and injure them by placing them in juxtaposition with our meagre observations. The work of Donoso Cortes forms a perfect whole. One must read it through ; and on concluding, every man of bona fides must exclaim, " I never before had noticed the sublime harmonies of Catholicism, and the foul repugnance of error.

Catholi- cism is the law of life, the hfe of the intelligence, the solution of all problems. Catholicism is the truth, and everything that departs from it one iota, is disorder, de- ception, and error. This work was examined in its dogmatic aspect by one of the most famous theologians of Paris, belonging to the glorious school of the Benedictines of Solesmes, and the author has finally adopted all his observations.

How a great question of theology is always involved in every great political question. In his " Confessions of a Revolutionist," M. Proudhon has written these remarkable words — " It is wonderful how we ever stumble on theology in all our political questions. Theology, inasmuch as it is the science of God, is the ocean which contains and embraces all sciences, as God is the ocean which contains and embraces all things. They were all before, and they are all after, their creation, in the divine understanding ; for if God made them from nothing, He adjusted them to a mould which is eternally in Him.

They are all there in that sublime manner in which effects are in their causes, consequences, in their principles, reflections, in light, forms, in their eternal exemplars. There, are the measure, the weight, and the number of all things, and all things came thence with number, weight, and measure. There, are the inviolable and subhrne laws of all beings, and each is under the empire of its own. Everything, that lives finds there the laws of life ; everything that vegetates, the laws of vegetation ; everything that moves, the laws of motion ; everything that has feeling, the laws of sensations ; everything that has intelligence, the laws of understandings ; everything that has liberty, the laws of wills.

This explains why, in proportion to the diminution of faith, truths diminish in the world ; and why the society which turns its back on God, beholds all its horizons suddenly obscured by terrifying darkness. For this reason, religion has been considered by all men, and in all times, as the indestructible foundation of human society. According to Zenophon on Socrates , "The most pious cities and nations have ever been the wisest and most lasting. Polybius declares that this holy fear is more necessary in free states than in others.

Numa, that Rome might be eternal, made her the Holy City. The Roman, among the peoples of antiquity, was the greatest, precisely because it was the most religious. When Caesar one day uttered in full senate certain expressions against the existence of the gods, Cato and Cicero at once rose to their feet to accuse the irreverent youth of pronouncing words dangerous to the state.

It is told of Fabricius, a Roman captain, that when he heard the philosopher Cineas mock the Divinity in pre- sence of Pyrrus, he uttered these memorable words — " Would to the gods our enemies may follow this doc- trine when at war with the Republic! One would say their illumination proceeds from the sudden explosion of materials in themselves obscure but in- flammable, rather than from the pure regions where is engendered that gentle light softly diffused over the arches of heaven, by the inimitable pencil of the Sove- reign Painter.

And what we have here said of ages, can be said of men. Denying or granting them the faith, God denies or grants them the truth. He does not grant nor deny them intelligence. The infideFs may be sublime, the laeliever's moderate. But the former is only great like an abyss, whilst the latter is holy like a tabernaclg,: in the first dwells error ; in the second, truth. In the abyss, with error, is death ; in the tabernacle, with truth, is life. For this reason there is no hope whatever for those societies which abandon the austere worship of truth for the idolatry of genius.

On the heels of sophisms come revolutions ; on the heels of the sophists, execu- tioners. He who knows the laws to which governments are subject, possesses political truth ; he who knows the laws to which human societies are subject, possesses social truth ; he who knows God, knows these laws ; he knows God who hears what He affirms of Himself, and believes what he hears. Theology is the science which has these affirmations for its object.

If all is explained in God and by God, and theology is the science of God, in whom, and by whom, all is explained, theology is the science of all. If it be, there is nothing beyond that science, which has no plural, because all, which is its subject, has none. Political and social science do not exist, except as arbitrary classifications of the h. In this way he distinguishes political affirmations from social and from rehgious affirmations ; whilst in God there is but one indivisible and sovereign affirmation.

He who, when he speaks explicitly of any- thing, knows not he speaks implicitly of God, or when he speaks explicitly of any science, is unaware he speaks implicitly of theology, may rest assured he has received from God only the intelligence absolutely necessary to constitute him a man. Every word which comes from the mouth of man, is an affirmation of the Divinity, even that by which he blasphemes or denies Him.

He who, turning against God, frantically ex- claims, " I abhor Thee ; Thou dost not exist," lays down a complete system of theology, as well as he who raises his contrite heart to Him, and says, " Lord, strike Thy servant who adores Thee! In the manner of pronouncing that name, Hes the solution of fearful enigmas — the vocation of races, the providential mission of peoples, the great vicissitudes of history, the rise and fall of famous empires, conquests, and wars, the different temperaments of nations, their physiognomy, and even their various fortunes.

Away there where God is infinite substance, man, abandoned to silent contemplation, inflicts death on his senses, and passes through life like a dream, fanned by sweet-scented and enervating breezes. The adorer of the infinite substance is condemned to a perpetual slavery and an infinite indolence : the desert will be for him something more sublime than the city, because it is more silent, more solitary and grand ; and yet he will not adore it as his god, because the desert is not infinite.

The ocean would be his only divinity, because it em- braces all, only for its wild turbulence and strange noise. The sun, which illumines all, would be worthy of his worship, if only he could not take in its resplendent disc with his eye.


The heavens would be his lord if it had no stars, and the night, if it had no rumours. His god is all these things together — immensity, obscurity, im- mobility, silence.


There, shall suddenly rise, by the secret virtue of a powerful vegetation, colossal and barbarous empires, which shall fall one day, with rude noise, crushed by the immense weight of others more gigantic and colossal, without leaving a trace in the memory of men either of their fall or of their foundation. The army will be principally and above all, a multitude. It shall be less the object of war to determine which nation is the most heroic, than to discover which empire is the most populous.

Victory itself shall be only a title of legiti- macy, inasmuch as it is the symbol of the Divinity, because it is the proof of strength. So we see that Indian theology and history are one and the same thing. Turning our eyes to the West, we see, stretched at its portals, a region which begins a new world in the moral, political, and theological, orders. The immense Oriental divinity is here analysed, and stripped of its austere and formidable character — here it is multitude. The divinity was there stationary ; here the multitude seethes without rest.

All was there silence ; here it is murmurs, cadence, and harmonies. The Oriental divinity extended through all time and over all space. The grand divine family has here its genealogical tree, and finds room on the small space of a mountain top; There is the repose of eternal peace in the god of the East ; here, in the divine dwelling, all is war, confusion, and tumult. The political, suffers the same vicissitudes as the religious, unity : here, every city is an empire, whilst there, all the multitudes formed one empire.

To a god corresponds a king ; to a republic of gods, one of cities. In this multitude of cities and of gods all will be disorder and confusion. Men will have in them something heroic and divine, and the gods, something terrestrial and human. There will be men of lofty fame and virtue, and incestuous and adulterous gods. Impressionable and nervous in temperament, that people will be great in its poets and famous in its artists, and will make itself the wonder of the world. Life will not be beautiful in its eyes, unless surrounded by the splendour and the reflections of glory ; nor will death be fearful, only because it is followed by oblivion.

Sen- sual to the marrow of its bones, it will look for nothing but pleasure in life ; and will consider 'death happy if it occurs among flowers. The familiarity and relation- ship with its gods will make that people vain, capri- cious, loquacious, and petulant. Wanting in respect for the divinity, it will be wanting in gravity in its designs, firmness, and consistency in its resolutions. The Oriental world will appear to it as a region full of shadows, or as a world peopled by statues.

The East in its turn, regarding the other's life so ephemeral, its death so premature, its glory so short-lived, will call it a nation of children. In the eyes of the one, greatness is in duration ; in those of the other, in movement. In this way Grecian theology, Grecian history, and the Grecian character are one and the same thing. This phenomenon is visible above all in the history of the Roman people.

Its principal gods, of Etrurian origin, as far as they were gods, were Grecian ; as far as Etrurian, Oriental. In politics as in religion, Rome is at once the East and the West. Ronae is like Janus : on its head there are two faces, and on its faces two countenances ; the one is symbolic of OxLental. Created in the designs of God to prepare the way for Him who was to come, her providential mission was to assimilate all theologies, and to domineer over all nations.

Obeying a mysteri- ous call, all the gods mount the Roman Capitol, and the nations, seized with a sudden terror, bow their heads to the earth. All cities, one after another, see themselves deserted by their gods : the gods, one after another, see themselves despoiled of their temples and of their cities. Her gigantic empire regards as peculi- arly its own, the legitimacy of the East, the multitude, power, and legitimacy of the West, intelligence and discipline. Hence it subjugates all, and nothing with- stands it; it grinds all, and no one complains.

From Sparta she has severity ; from Athens, culture ; from Memphis, pomp ; and grandeur from Babylon and Nineveh. Analyse now the constitutive elements of that powerful synthesis, and you shall find that it is synthesis in the political and social orders, only because it is so in the. In the Oriental peoples as in the Grecian republics, and in the Roman empire as in the Grecian republics and in the Oriental peoples, the theo- logical, serve to explain the political, systems. Theology is the light of history. The Roman greatness could not descend from the Capitol except by the same means which had served it in ascending.

No one could put his foot in Rome without the permission of her gods ; no one could scale the" Capitol without first hurling down Jupiter Optimus Maximus. The ancients, who had a confused notion of the vital force which exists in every religious system, believed that no city could be conquered unless first abandoned by the national gods. Hence we find in all wars of city with city, of people with people, and race with race, a spiritual and religious contest, which followed the fortunes of the material and political.

The besieged, whilst they resisted with the sword, turned their eyes to their gods that they might not abandon them in their misery. The besiegers, in their turn, con- jured them with mysterious imprecations to abandon the city. Rome succumbed because her gods succumbed ; her empire came to an end because her theology ended. In this way does history place in relief, the grand prin- ciple which is hidden in the depths of the human con- science.

Rome had given to the world her Caesars and her gods. Jupiter and Caesar Augustus had divided between them the grand empire of things human and divine. The sun, which had seen gigantic empires rise and fall, had never, since the day of its creation, beheld one of such august majesty and such extraordinary grandeur. All nations had received its yoke ; even the rudest and wildest had bent their necks : the world laid down its arms ; the earth hushed its breath.

At that time there was born, in an humble stable, of humble parents, a Child, prodigious in the land of pro- digies. That dread and that vague terror soon passed away, when they saw the days and nights prosecute as before, their per- petual rotation, and the sun continue rising on the Roman horizon. And the imperial governors said to themselves, " Cffisar is immortal, and the rumours we heard were the rumours of nervous and idle people.

Against the prejudices of the vulgar there is an efficacious remedy — contempt and oblivion. But at the end of thirty years the discontented and idle begin to find, in new and more extraordinary rumours, new food for their idle talk. The Child had become man, according to people's' report. On receiving on His head the waters of the Jordan, a spirit like a dove had descended on Him ; the heavens had opened, and a voice was heard- on high saying, "This is my beloved Son. In past times, when it turned its eyes, obscured with weeping, to its abandoned temple and its ruined country, in the Babylonic slavery, a great conqueror, announced by its prophets, had redeemed it from slavery, and restored it at once to its temple and its country.

It was no way wonderful, then, but quite natural, that it should await a new redemption and a new redeemer, who should strike from its neck the heavy chain of Rome. If there had been no more than this, the unprejudiced and enlightened people of that age would probably have allowed these rumours to pass, as they had the others, till time, the great minister of human reason, had dis- sipated them ; but some evil spirit arranged things otherwise ; for it happened that Jesus, this was the name of the Person of whom those great wonders were told , commenced to teach a new doctrine, and work extraordinary things.

His audacity, or His madness, went so far as to call the hypocrites and the proud, proud and hypocrites, and whitewashed sepulchres those who were whitewashed sepulchres. The hardness of His heart was so great, that He advised the poor to be patient, and then mocking them, proclaimed their happiness. To be revenged on the rich, who always despised Him, He said to them, "Be merciful. He despised — so great was His envy — the doctors and the sages, and con- versed — so low were His instincts — with the gross and rude.

In spite of His studied austerity, He said His doctrine was love; He condemned labour in Martha, and sanctified idleness in Mary; He had a secret compact with the infernal spirits, and received the gift' of miracles in price for His soul. Crowds followed Him, and the multitude adored Him. It is evident, in spite of their good intentions, the guardians of the holy things and of the imperial pre- rogatives, responsible as they were, in virtue of their offices, for the majesty of religion and the peace of the empire, could no longer remain impassible.

What prin- cipally urged them to take active measures was the report they had on one hand that a great multitude had been on the point of proclaiming Him King of the Jews, and on the other, that He had called himself Son of God, and had tried to prevent people from paying tribute. He who had said and done such things must die for the people. It only remained to prove the charges and clearly establish the fact.

As to the tribute, when He was once questioned on the point, He gave that cele- brated answer, which disconcerted the curious — "Give to God what belongs to God, and to Caasar what belongs to Csesar ; " which was the same as — " I leave you your Caesar, and I rob you of your Jupiter. Then Caiphas said, " This man is guilty, and should die;" and Pilate, on the contrary, "Set Him free, for He is innocent.

Pilate, a layman, regarded it in the political point of view. Pilate could not comprehend what the state had to do with religion, Caesar with Jupiter, politics with theology. Caiphas, on the contrary, thought that every new religion must disturb the state, every new god dethrone Csesar, and that the political was involved in the theological question.

The mob instinc- tively thought with Caiphas, and in its hoarse murmurs called Pilate the enemy of Tiberius. In this state the question remained for the moment.

Pilate, immortal type of corrupt judges, sacrificed the Just One. The Son of God mounted the cross amid mockery and insults; there were raised against Him the hands and tongues of the rich and the poor, the hypocrites and the proud, the priests and the sages, of women of bad life and of men of evil conscience, of the adulterers and fornicators.

Everything was at rest for a moment ; but then were seen things never before seen by the eyes of men. The eagles of Rome were heard screaming wildly. Rome was seen without Caesars and without gods ; the cities depopulated and the deserts peopled ; as the governors of nations, men who did not know how to read, and were clad in skins ; the multitudes obeying the voice of him who said at the Jordan, " Do penance," and of the other who said, " He who wishes to be perfect, let him leave all thingSj take up his cross, and follow me ; " and kings adoring the Cross, and the Cross raised on high in all places.

What is the cause of these great changes and trans- formations? What is the cause of this great desolation and universal cataclysm? What has occurred "i No- thing ; only some new theologians are going about through the world announcing a new theology. Of society under the empire of Catholic theology. That new theology is called Catholicity.

Catholicity is a complete s ystem of civilisation, so complete, that in its immerisity it embraces eve rything— the science of God, the science of. The infidel falls into ecstasy at sight of its inconceivable extravagance. If there be any one who, on beholding it, passes by with a smile, people, more astounded at such an amount of stupid indifference than at that colossal grandeur and that inconceivable extravagance, raise their voice, and say, " Let the fool pass. There, it learns how and when all things and times are to end, and when and how they had their beginning : there, are discovered secrets which were ever hidden from the speculations of the philosophers of the Gentiles, and the understanding of their sages : there, are revealed the final causes of all things, the concerted movement of everything human, the nature of bodies and the essence of spirits, the ways by which men walk, the term to which they go, the point from which they come, the mystery of their peregrination and the line of their journey, the enigma of their tears, and the secret of life and death.

Chil- dren suckled at its prolific breasts, know to-day more than Aristotle and Plato, the luminaries of Athens. And yet the doctors who teach these things, and rise to such sublimity, are humble. It was given to the Catholic world alone to present a spectacle on earth reserved formerly to the angels in heaven — the spec- tacle of science bent in humility before the divine throne.

It is universal because it embraces all truths ; because it embraces all that all truths contain ; because its nature is destined to extend through all space and to be prolonged through all time. It is universal in its God, and in its dogmas. God was unity in India, dualism in Persia, variety in Greece, multitude in Rome. The living God is one in substance, like the Indian god ; multiple in person, like the Persian ; like the Greek gods, He is various in His attributes, and in the multitude of spirits gods which serve Him. He is multitude, like the Roman gods ; He is universal cause, infinite and impalpable sub- stance, eternal repose, and author of all motion; He is supreme intelligence, sovereign will; He is the container, not the contained.

It is He drew every- thing from nothing, and it is He maintains everything in its being, who regulates all things angelic, all things human, and all things infernal.


He is merciful, just, loving, brave, powerful, simple, secret, beautiful, wise. The east knows His voice, the west obeys Him; the south reverences Him, the north hangs on His nod. His word swells creation; the stars veil their face ; the seraphim reflect His light on their inflamed wings ; the heavens serve Him for a throne, and the earth's globe is poised in His hand. When the time came, the Catholic God showed His countenance ; this sufficed to cast to the earth all idols fabricated by men.

Catholicity seized on man in his body, in his senses, and in his soul. Dogmatic theologians taught him what to believe ; moral theologians, what he should do; and the mystics, rising above all, taught him to ascend on high on the wings of prayer, that ladder of Jacob composed of brilliant stones, by which God descends to earth and man rises to heaven, till earth and heaven, God and man, burning together in the flame of an infinite love, are blended in one.

The moral world found on the day of redemption the laws it had lost on the day of prevarication and sin. The Catholic dogma was the criterion of sciences. Catholic morality the criterion of actions, and charity the criterion of affections. The human conscience, escaped from its hampered state, saw through the interior as well as through the exterior darkness, and at the light of those three divine criterions, recognised the happiness of the peace it had lost. Order passed from the religious to the moral world, and from the moral to the political world. The Catholic God, creator and sustainer of all things, subjected them to the government of His Providencej and governed them by His vicars.

The ide a of authority is of Catholic origm. Catholic governors, considering themselves as nothing, were no more than the ministers of God, and the servants of the people. When man became the child of God, he immediately ceased to be the slave of man. There is nothing at once more respectable, more august, and more solemn, than the words pronounced by the Church in the ears of Christian princes at the time of their consecration — " Take this wand as an emblem of your sacred power, that you may be able to support the weak, sustain the vacillating, correct the vicious, and lead the good along the path of salvation.

Take this sceptre as the emblem of divine equity, which directs the good and chastises the wicked : learn from this to love justice and abhor iniquity. For the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a redemption for many" Mark x. All gained in this fortunate revolution — peoples and their governors ; the latter, because having domineered formerly over people's bodies by the right of force, now they governed bodies and minds, sustained by the force of right ; the former, because they passed from the obedience of man to the obedience of God, and because they passed from forced obedience to voluntary obedience.

Yet, if all gained, all did not gain equally ; for princes, in the mere act of governing in the name of God, represented the impotence of humanity to constitute a legitimate authority by itself, and in its own name ; whilst peoples, from the mere fact of only obeying God in the prince, were the representatives of the highest and most glorious of human prerogatives, which consists in freedom from subjection to any yoke but that of divine authority. This explains, on the one hand, the singular modesty with which the fortunate princes whom men call great, and the Church, saints, shine in history; and on the other, the singular no- bihty and distinction which are marked on the brow of all Catholic peoples.

Catholicity, by deifying authority, sanctified obedi- ence ; and by sanctifying the one and deifying the other, condemned pride in all its most tremendous manifestations, in the spirit of domination, and in the spirit of rebellion. Rousseau, who had sometimes sudden and grand illuminations, has written these remarkable words — " Modern governments are undoubtedly in- debted to Christianity, on one side, for the firmness of their authority, and on the other, for the lengthened intervals between revolutions.

Nor has her influence extended to this alone ; for, acting on themselves, she has made them more humane. To become con- vinced of this, we have only to compare them with ancient governments" Emile 1.

And Montesquieu has said — " There is no doubt Christianity has created among us the political right we recognise in peace, and the right of nations we respect in war, for the benefits of which the human race shall never be sufficiently grateful " Esprit de Lois, 1. God himself, who is the author and governor of poli- tical, is the author and governor of domestic, society. In the most hidden, in the highest, in the most serene and luminous point, of the heavens, there exists a taber- nacle, inaccessible even to the choirs of the angels ; in that inaccessible tabernacle is perpetually verified the prodigy of prodigies, the mystery of mysteries.

The Father is omnipotence, the Son, wisdom, the Holy Ghost, love ; and the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost are infinite love, supreme power, perfect wisdom. There, unity, dilating, eternally begets variety ; and variety, condensing, is eternally resolved into unity. God is thesis, antithesis, and synthesis; and He' is sovereign thesis, perfect antithesis, infinite synthesis. Because He is one. He is prolific; because He is prolific. Geological evidence for past changes in glacier length provides a useful source of information about pre-historic climate change.

Our results provide data to assess climate model simulations, with the aim of determining the drivers of past natural climate change. Cut-fill terraces are common landforms throughout the world. Their distribution both in space and time is not clear-cut, as they can arise from numerous processes. We apply a climate-dependent regolith production algorithm to determine potential sediment loads during climate shifts. When combined with transport capacity, our results suggest that the cut-fill terraces of western Peru can result from transient stripping of hillslope sediment but not steady-state hillslope erosion.

Bravo, M. Rojas, B. Anderson, A. Mackintosh, E. Sagredo, and P. We examine the climatic forcing of glacier expansion in the mid-Holocene MH by evaluating modelled glacier equilibrium line altitude ELA and climate conditions during the MH compared with pre-industrial PI time in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. We postulate that the modelled ELA changes may help to explain larger glacier extents observed in the mid-Holocene in both regions. More articles 1. Other Hazards e. Mechanized skiing operations use an established process to select skiing terrain with a low risk level.

However, the relationship between appropriate skiing terrain and avalanche conditions has only received limited research attention. Our study examines this relationship numerically for the first time and shows the effects of avalanche hazard, previous skiing, and previous acceptability on different types of skiing terrain and offers the foundation to develop evidence-based decision tools. In this paper we present an EM geophysics method designed for shallow purposes for determining the 3-D geometry of a sinkhole. Thanks to scuba divers we have a broad path they followed along the subterranean rivers.

Our 3-D model can be correlated with those scuba diver paths. Nunes, Carlos C. DaCamara, Kamil F. Turkman, Teresa J. Calado, Ricardo M. Trigo, and Maria A. Portugal is recurrently affected by large wildfire events. We present a statistical model to estimate the probability that the summer burned area exceeds a given threshold.

Key points

The model allows making outlooks of wildfire potential with up to 1 month in advance of the fire season. When applied to the year period , only 1 severe one weak year is not anticipated as potentially severe weak. The model will assist the fire community when planning prevention and combating fire events. The region was impacted up to five to six times by recurrent LFs, the east experiencing fewer but larger LFs despite fire weather conditions decreasing eastwards. The efficiency of fire management has improved but LF outbreaks during extreme weather conditions remain a major concern.

Based on stability charts proposed by Perrotti et al. When underground quarries are suitably surveyed and mapped, a quantitative assessment of the stability conditions is possible. We developed statistical models simulating the probability of large wildfires in France from the climate forcing. The models were able to reproduce both spatial and temporal variability in large wildfires across different environmental regions.

The models have wide applications, including improving our understanding of the drivers of large wildfires over the historical period and providing a basis on which to estimate future changes to large wildfires from climate projections. We used a revealed preference approach and identified patterns in risk management decisions of mechanized skiing operations.

Our results show that terrain choices of experienced guides depend on a much broader set of factors beyond just the avalanche hazard, including skiing experience or accessibility due to weather. The identified high-resolution ski run hierarchies provide new opportunities for examining professional avalanche risk management practices and developing meaningful decision aids. Cellular automata are useful tools to simulate wildfire propagation.

The explosive stage is adequately modeled when refining the role played by the wind in fire spreading. Results show a probability of ignition out of the limits of the observed scar, information that may help choose where to allocate resources for firefighting.

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Coping with avalanche hazard has a long tradition in alpine countries. Hazard mapping has proven to be one of the most effective methods. In this paper we develop a new approach to automatically delineate avalanche release areas and connect them to state-of-the-art numerical avalanche simulations. This enables computer-based hazard indication mapping over large areas such as entire countries.

Schmitt on Cortes

This is of particular interest where hazard maps do not yet exist, such as in developing countries. Anticipating the flight path of a bouncing object holds fascination for playing children and scientists alike. While the path of a ball can be judged easily, the erratic rebound behavior of complexly shaped forms are intriguing. Here, we focus on the timescales and rotation changes during real rock—ground impacts while traveling down a slope.

Specialized sensors inside the rock track those changes and reveal contact times in the millisecond range defining the overall flight path behavior. The growing oil sands operations in Canada's wildlands on the one hand and an anticipated increase in the frequency of wildfires, due to global warming, on the other hand can jeopardize the safety and integrity of oil sands facilities.

The present study aims to develop a methodology, based on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System and quantitative risk assessment techniques, for assessing the impact of wildfires on wildland—industrial interfaces with an emphasis on oil sands facilities. In , the European Avalanche Warning Services agreed upon a common danger scale to describe the regional avalanche hazard: the European Avalanche Danger Scale.

Using published avalanche forecasts, we explored whether forecasters use the scale consistently. We noted differences in the use of the danger levels, some of which could be linked to the size of the regions a regional danger level is issued for. We recommend further harmonizing the avalanche forecast products in the Alps. Very large wildfires have high human, economic, and ecological impacts. Preventing such events is a major objective of the new fire policy set up in France in , which is oriented towards fast and massive fire suppression.

This study investigates the effect of this policy on the largest fires. We estimate the burned area corresponding to fires that occur every 5, 20, and 50 years on average so-called return periods in southern France. Rune V. The Norwegian Avalanche Warning Service was launched in to stop the increase in avalanche fatalities. We studied how efficiently warnings communicate the hazard on Varsom. Which elements in the warning are not important? Which elements are easily misunderstood? We developed a communication effectiveness score for testing this using an online survey.

Conversely, a connection between events of unrest and the largest earthquakes in northern Tuscany is not identified. This paper provides new insights into the evolution of sinkholes in active fault zones. The number of occurrences of ground subsidence induced by a leakage of aged pipelines for water and sewage in urban areas resulting in various sizes of cavity near the urban railway in South Korea has increased and it may cause roadbed settlement to exceed the allowable value.

In this study, a three-dimensional numerical analysis is carried out to estimate roadbed stability and its risk level associated with various groundwater levels and sizes of cavities in simulated ground conditions. The technology presented in this paper is based on a completely new approach wherein the development of a new field mass loss device combined with recent progress in the understanding of its behaviour achieves never before recorded data. It is the first time that the kinetics of decomposition of biomass have been validated under real wildland fire conditions, thus ensuring reliable characterisation of source terms.

Snow gliding is a key factor for snow glide avalanche formation and soil erosion. This study considers atmospheric and snow variables, vegetation characteristics, and soil properties, and determines their relevance for snow gliding. The soil moisture, the soil temperature, the liquid water content of snow, the phytomass of mosses, and the friction coefficient have major influence. However, further investigations may be focused on the freezing and melting processes in the uppermost soil layers.

Gravel cushions are widely used for rockfall prevention in open-pit mines to absorb energy; the energy-consumption and buffer mechanism of different thicknesses and particle sizes of gravel cushions under the impact effects are studied. A series of laboratory tests for different cushions are conducted, combining the blocks' volume and drop height. It provides a theoretical and practical basis for the wide application of cushion design to control rockfall. We assessed the evolution of the rural—urban interface RUI in Portugal based on land cover changes.

A significant increase in artificial surfaces was registered near the main metropolitan communities, whilst the abandonment of agricultural land near the inland urban areas led to an increase in uncultivated semi-natural areas. This study explore the feasibility of using a combination of recent and traditional satellite products to estimate the grassland fire fuel availability across space and time over Australia.

We found a significant relationship between both recent and traditional satellite products and observed grassland fuel availability and develop an estimation model. We hope our estimation model will provide a more balanced alternative to the currently available grass fuel availability estimation models.

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This paper studies the lake dynamics for avalanche-triggered glacial lake outburst floods GLOFs in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range in Ancash, Peru. Lake Palcacocha is used as a case study to analyze the upper watershed processes that typically comprise a GLOF event, specifically the lake dynamics when an avalanche produces a large displacement wave that might overtop and erode the lake-damming moraine.

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Natural hazards such as snow avalanches, debris flows and volcanic activity represent a risk to mountain communities. This is particularly the case where documentary records about these processes are rare. As a result, decisions on risk management and land-use planning are based on other sources such tree-ring data and process models. Our study was conducted at Valle Las Trancas in Chile, where we evaluated the dynamics of avalanches and other natural hazards which threaten its population.

This paper describes the surveys we performed in and by means of UAVs and terrestrial photogrammetry to monitor the Forni Glacier, one of the largest glaciers in the Italian Alps. We investigated the hazards related to the glacier collapse, which have been increasing recently due to the high ice melting rate. Our approach is feasible and low cost and we will repeatedly monitor the glacier to provide rapid hazard detection services to help the tourism sector.

Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during — in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock, as well as destroying property and crops. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as being of the tunnel-type , a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months.

Here we show that wildland fires in an Italian alpine region are ignited mainly by human negligence. Areas under hot, dry climate are more prone to fire. Cattle grazing reduces the fuel for winter fires, but increases ignition risk in summer. The maps of fire risk that we produce can help to support fire prevention and ecosystem management. Snow avalanche motion is strongly dependent on the temperature and water content of the snow cover. In this paper we use a snow cover model, driven by measured meteorological data, to set the initial and boundary conditions for wet-snow avalanche calculations.