June, Marsden, F. Horgas and R. Report of Investigation No. Mineralogist Magazine, London. March XXXL, No. Hummel, B. Sastry, and Dean Wotring. Photogrammetric Engineering, September Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 41  The Glass Industry. September and October, R Bussem and E. Buessem and A. Brindley and Mahmoud Rustom. American Mineralogist, 43, Kohman, and William A. Science, January 16, , Vol. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 41  Deasy and Phyllis R. Economic Geography, Volume 33, No.
Al2O3, by Arnulf Muan. II: Phase Relations, by O. Hall and Harold L. Grendon and Harold L. Charmbury and Joseph W. Crowley and Rustum Roy. Layden and M. Hill and Rustum Roy. Clayton and Egon T. Davis, J. Keeler and G. Smith and W. Brindley, A. Majumdar, R. Roy and J.
Hummel and Fred L. Gatenby and S. Journal of Petroleum Technology, November Sun, Daniel L. Love, and Richard T. Mitchell and H. Bates and Joseph J. Nielsen and R. VI: On Tridymites, by V. Transactions of the British Ceramic Society, Vol. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. Sastry and F.
Lattman and R. The Journal of Geography, Vol. LVII, No. II, Volume 20, No. Pinson, Jr. Herzog, H. Fairbairn and R. Schanz, Jr. The Refining Engineer, April Spokes and David R. Mining Engineering, March Swartz and R. Swartz and H. Lovell and J. Williams and R. Gillery and E. Dent and J. Bulletin of the American Mineralogical Society, Vol. The Refining Engineer, February Keith and E.
Panofsky, H. Cramer and V. Journal of Colloid Science, Volume 14, No. Kinney and D. Boobar, C. Wright, and C. Properties of Carbon Formed, by P. Rakszawski and G. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 63, Rates of Carbon Formation, by P. Kingery, J. Klein and M. Hummel and Tseng-Ying Tien. American Mineralogist, Pages Silverman and T. Glasser and E. Journal of The American Ceramic Society, 43  MacKenzie and J. Warshaw and R.
R Sastry and F. Kim and F. The Journal of the American Society, Vol. Dachille and R. Stemple and G. January, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 41,  Bennett and J. White, H. McKinstry, and T. Glasser and D. American Mineralogist, pages Vila and M. Mining Engineering, January MacChesney and A. McMorris, III. Mining Engineering, November Gross and E. Economic Geology, Volume 54, Sarver and F. Journal of The Electrochemical Society Vol. Hahn, Jr.
Nickelsen and G. Klinsberg and R. Grace and T. October, Phillips and A. The Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 42  Muan and S. December, Gillmore, C. Journal of The Institute of Fuel, February, Murphy, H. Palmer, and C.
American Journal of Psychiatry
Kremp, H. Ames, and N. Taxon 8 3 : , Industrial Carbon and Graphite, Kremp and N. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. Howell, A. Andrews, and R. Geophysics Vol. XXIV, No. Kremp, R. Neavel, and J. Kremp and J. Wyllie and O. Griess and G. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science, pages XXXII, Deasy and P. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science, pages , Vol. The Journal of Geology, Vol, 69, No. American Mineralogist, , pages Synthesis and Stability of Calcium Zeolites, by M.
Koizumi and R. The Journal of Geology Vol. The Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 43,  Mechanization, May Brindley and S. Rindone, D. Day and R. Sarver, F. Katnack, and F. Crowley and R. Breck and J. Scientific American, January Kinney and H. Dachille and L. Wright and B. Brindley and N. April, Agrell and J. February, Buckner and R. Roy, A. Majumdar, and C. Emuleus and J. Muan and W. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 43,  Glastechnische Berichte Sounderband V.
International GlaskongreB 32 K Heft. VI, S. Buckner, D. Roy, and R. Majumdar and R. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 63, , May, Wright, C. Smith, and J.
Journal of Geography, Vol. Bieler and H. Shulhof and H. Read and T. Stanley and G. Maneval and H. Journal of Petrology, Volume 1, Number 1, February Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 43  The Pittsburgh Ceramist, 9 10 May, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 63, Hummel, T. Tien, and K. Differentiation Index, by C. Thornton and O. Murthy and F. Geometrical Considerations, by P. Aramaki and R. ARS Journal, May Julian, L. Krawitz and H. O'Neil and N. Applied Spectroscopy vol.
Keller and P. Osborn and P. Pittsburgh Ceramist. Mumpton and R. Hinckley and T. Slobod, E. Burcik and B. Gentile and R. Glasser, I. Dunsmore, J. Fenstermacher and F. Argyle and F. Oliver and A. Part II. Kinckley and T. Jaworek and J. Coal Age, May Hoffman and G. Read and A. Rao, H. AIME Transactions, volume , Panofsky, A. Blackadar and G. Warshaw, P. Rosenberg and R. The Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 43  Journal of Physical Chemistry, 64, Klingsberg and R.
Panofsky and R. Hallgren and C. Monograph No. Dachile and R. XXXIV, Brindley and D. October Charmbury and H. Stubican and R. Charmbury and T. Mechanization Magazine, January Gatlin and R. Petroleum Transactions, Volume , Dent Glasser and R. Simkovich and R. McKinstry and M. Description of Structure, by J. Clay-Organic Studies. Part III, by L. Tensmeyer, R. Hoffmann and G. Sreenivas and R. De Boer et al. The Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol.
Hoss and R. Lecznar and H. Hosoi and K. Kotyk and H. Werner and H. White, F. Palmer and D. Seery and H. Deklau and H. Hosler and R. Discussions of The Faraday Society, , No. Day and G. Burcik and R. Brindley, D. Maroney and S. Slobod and S. Bush and R. American Mineralogist, 46, : , pages Science, July 29, , Vol.
Marboe and S. Strickler and R. Lattman and A. Mineral Industries, November, , Vol. Roy and R. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, December Clay Organic Studies. Part IV, by R. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 65, Phillips, S. Somiya, and A. The Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 44  Hosler and M. Pinnow and R. Brindley, C. De Kimpe. Hoyt and H. Tien and F. Influence des cations echangeables. Longuet-Escard, J.
Mering and G. Azzaria and F. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 65, , Brown, N. Morimoto, and J. Reprinted The Journal of Geology, Vol. Asklund, W. Brown, and J. Brindley and R. Clay and Clay Minerals, Vol. Redmond and P. Waker, Jr. Journal of Physical Chemistry , 64, Energy Markets, by W. Schanz Jr. De Kimpe, M. Gastuche, and G. Spackman, W. Berry, R. Dutcher, and A. Bennett and E. Pattern, Jr.click here
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American Mineralogist, pages, Brindley and C. Rusinko, Jr. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Carbon. Brindley and H. Singh and H. Tandanand and H. International Symposium on Mining Research, Vol. Hummel and M. Journal of the Electochemical Society, Vol. Walter, P. Journal of Petrology, Volume 3, Number 1, February Kotlensky and P. Cohen and R. Roy and H. XXXV, Aleshin and R. Reser, G. Smith, and H. Insley, The American Ceramic Society, Riboud and A. Banerjee and P. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 65, Photogrammetric Engineering, June Muan and E. The American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 41,  The Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 45  Brown and J.
Bressanelli and J. Datta and R. Clark, , Reinhold Publishing Corporation. Mickle and H. Aukrust and A. Acta Metallurgica, Vol. The American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 42  The Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 45  Putman and C. Dehydrated Ca-Chabazite, by J. Knox and H. Chemical Reviews, Volume 61, June, Burnham and R. Hammond and P. Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. The Professional Geographer, Vo.
Taylor and Arnulf Muan. Reprinted Economic Geology, Vol. Joensuu and Normal. Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. Polansky, E. Knapp, and C. Journal of Institute of Fuel, June, Slysh and C. Hartsock and R. Weinstein, F. Fuel, A Journal of Fuel Science. XL, July, Kinney and J. Ranganathan, B.
Mackean, and Arnulf Muan. Journal of American Ceramic Society, 45 , Smith and F. Rinaldi and L. Dent Glasser. Crystallographica, Vol. Palmer and Bruce E. ARS Journal, June G Dueser. II, by G. Slobod and R. McDonald, Jr. Wayne Burnham. Transactions of SME, Vol. Journal of The Institute of Fuel, September, Riboud and Arnulf Muan. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 46,  Weinstein and P. XL, September, Deuser and L. Bratton and G. November, Day and Guy E. American Ceramic Society, Vol. Fetterman and Shiou-Chuan Sun.
Journal of Applied Physics: 36, Herzog, T. Eskew and R. Slobod and Duane A. Harker, D. Roy and O. Gittins and O. Wood and J. Singh and Howard L. Iiyama and Rustum Roy. I by Pu-Yi Wen, J. Brown and F. Griffiths and C. Proceedings of the Anthracite Conference, Bull. Hirt and Howard B. Nelson and P. Journal of Applied Chemistry, , 11, pp. Identification Problems, by G. The American Mineralogist, Vol. Sarber and F. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. Warshaw and Rustum Roy. Inorganic Chemistry, 1, Palmer and T. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 84, , Wyllie and H.
Hawkins and Rustum Roy. Cohen and Rustum Roy. Banerjee, T. Hirt, and P. November 4, XXXVI, Griess and George F. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences, pages , Vol. Nature, Vol , No. Dachille and Rustum Roy. Brindley and Rojald M. British Ceramic Society, Vol. Read and William A. Datta and Rustum Roy. August, Williams and M. Jackson and Howard L. Crowe, R. Ghaffar-Adly, and J. Soil Science, Vol. Van Hook and E. Osborn and Arnulf Muan. Electric Furnace Steelmaking, Vol. II, pp , Schaller, Rollin E.
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Stevens and Richard H. American Mineralogist, , Pages Comer and R. Layden and G. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, , Vol. Hait, Jr. Journal of Metals, May Spackman and C. South Dakota, by William B. White and George H. Jahns and O. Taylor, Jr. Journal of Geophysical Research Vol. White and Herbert A. Boris Kochanowsky. Mining Congress Journal, November, Stubican and Rustum Roy.
Pit and Quarry. Boris J. Datta, D. Roy, S. Faile, and O. Mulay and L. Official Digest, Vol. June Brindley and Ryozo Hayami. Petroleum in Southwestern Ohio, by E. Sedimentary Petrography and the Oil Industry, by J. Mineral Resources of Indo-China, by E. Industrial Resources of Indochina by E.
Ground Vibrations Near Explosions, by B. Photochemistry of Rutile, by W. Formation of a Sulfate Glass, by T. Glass Formation in Nonsilicate Systems, by W. Agricultural Developments in Interior Alaska, by E. Bildung und Struktur von Silikagel, by W. Petroleum Production Economics, by Oscar R. Andrew Carnegie, Geochemistry and Refractories, by E.
Conductivity Study of Mineral Suspensions, by S. Preparing Peruvian Anthracite, by E. Combustion Through Ash Barriers, by H. Action of Light on Tar Fractions, by C. Comments of Capillary Equilibrium, by J. Climatic Study of the Philippines, l. Sheet Metal Industries, March, Journal of Metals, January High-Temperature Zirconium Phosphates, by D. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 10, , Journal of Physical Chemistry 58, , Metals in the Atomic State in Glasses, by W.
Journal of Physical Chemistry, , Ceramic Age, August There never was anything done with the plan until a few years ago, when Mr. Welch, president of the Camden and Amboy Railroad and Canal, invented exactly the same thing and put it in practice on his locks on the canal. He found it saved half the time and great expense.
He went to Washington to take out a patent for it, and when he got there he found that I had patented the same thing fifty-three years before. My patent had run out, so he could use the plan on his canal. It has also been used on one lock on the Erie Canal. If they could have used that chain on the whole length of the Erie Canal it would have saved many millions of dollars. This would not be a bad place, were there room for it, to speak of "undeveloped" and therefore worthless inventions; and the assumption that if an inventor does not make his invention immediately profitable it must be good for nothing, and should be dispatented.
But the moral goes without telling. Cooper's next attempt at invention was made about the same time, but in quite a different direction. It was during the struggle of the Greeks for independence, and wishing to do something for their assistance, Mr. Cooper undertook to make a torpedo boat for them. Cooper says:.
It was fixed with a rotary steam engine and a screw wheel to propel it. It was intended to be guided from the ship or the shore. There were two steel wires fixed to the tiller of the rudder, and the operator could pull on one side or the other and guide the vessel just as a horse is guided with reins. It was so arranged that at night it would carry a light with its dark side toward the object to be destroyed, and by simply keeping the light in range with the vessel it would be sure to hit it.
The torpedo was carried on a little iron rod, projecting in front of the torpedo vessel a few inches under water. Contact would discharge the torpedo and bend this iron rod. This would reverse the action of the engine and cause the torpedo vessel to return right back from whence it came, ready to carry another torpedo. Unfortunately the torpedo boat was not ready in time to go with the ship carrying the contributions for Greece.
It was stored in Mr. Cooper's factory he had then turned his attention to glue and was destroyed by the burning of the factory. It seems to have been quite a promising affair for the time. I made a steel wire ten miles long and went down to the Narrows to test the matter. I had steel yards fastened to one end of the wire, and to the other end the torpedo vessel as attached.
It got about six miles away when a vessel coming into the harbor crossed the wire and broke it. Although the experiment was not complete it showed that for at least six miles I could guide the vessel as easily as I could guide a horse. Cooper's work as the pioneer locomotive builder in this country; his later inventions and improvements in the manufacture of railway iron and wrought iron beams for fireproof buildings; his application of anthracite coal to iron puddling, and his other successes are almost as widely known as his philanthropic efforts for the education and advancement of the industrial classes of this city.
After all, we are not sure but the story of his long and varied and always honorable career, told by himself, would not be worth, to young people who have to make their way in life through many difficulties, more even than the advantages of the noble institution which bears his name. Taste for Reading.
Information has been received by way of Lisbon, March 12, that the Portuguese explorer, Pinto, has succeeded in traversing Africa from west to east, and has reached Transvaal. The latitude of his course across is not mentioned. Seeley made the following remarks: The article claims that Mr. Gary has made a discovery of a neutral line or surface, at which the polarity of an induced magnet, while moving in the field of the inducing pole, is changed.
The alleged discovery appears to be an exaggerated statement of some curious facts, which, although not new, are not commonly recognized. If a bar of iron be brought up, end on, near a magnetic pole, the bar becomes an induced magnet, but an induced magnet quite different from what our elementary treatises seem to predict. On the first scrutiny it is a magnet without a neutral point, and only one kind of magnetism—namely, that of the inducing pole. Moreover, the single pole is pretty evenly distributed over the whole surface, so that if iron filings be sprinkled on the bar they will be attracted at all points and completely cover it.
Now, if while the bar is covered by filings it be moved away from the inducing pole, the filings will gradually and progressively fall, beginning at the end nearest the inducing pole and continuing to some point near the middle of the bar; the filings at the remote end will generally be held permanently. When the bar is carried beyond the field of the inducing pole it is simply a weak magnet of ordinary properties— i. A plausible and simple explanation of this case is that the inducing pole holds or binds the induced magnetism of opposite name, so that it has no external influence; the two magnetisms are related to each other as are the positive and negative electricities of the Leyden jar.
Let the inducing pole be N. On moving the bar from the pole the bound magnetism is released and a part becomes residual magnetism. Now when the residual balances the free magnetism which is of opposite name, we are on Gary's neutral line. In a restricted sense there is a change of polarity over the half of the bar contiguous to the inducing pole; on the other half there is no change of pole in any sense. Now if one will read the magazine article with such ideas as these he will feel pretty sure that the writer of it has used words recklessly, that Gary has not made an original discovery, and that the "neutral" line, whatever it be, has only an imagined relation to the "principle" of the motor.
The Gary Motor as a perpetual motion scheme, of course, is not worthy of serious notice from a society devoted to science. It has no noteworthy novelty of construction or conception. Gary is afflicted with the very old delusion of the cut-off or shield of magnetism, which is to cost less than what comes from it. His cut-off is a sheet of iron, which we know acts simply as an armature. Duter, in a paper read before the French Academy in December, showed that when a Leyden jar is charged with either positive or negative electricity its internal volume increases, and that this effect is a new phenomenon, unexplainable by either a theory of an increase of temperature or of an electrical pressure.
The experiment was performed by means of a flask-shaped Leyden jar with a long tube attached to its neck, and containing a liquid which served as the inner armature. The author's attention had been called to the fact that this phenomenon had been observed ten years ago by M.
His researches, just made public, leave no doubt of the accuracy of M. Duter's view, that the glass of the jar really expands. According to the theory of elasticity, the effect of an internal pressure in a hollow sphere is in the inverse ratio of its thickness. Duter, therefore, had three flasks made of the same volume, but of thicknesses of 4 mm.
They were filled with water and enveloped by tin foil. Each carried a capillary thermometer tube, in which the variations of the height of liquid served to measure the changes in volume due to electrification. He found that these changes were imperceptible in the thick glass, very marked in the flask of mean thickness, and rose to 30 mm. The variations in volume were very nearly in inverse ratio of the square roots of the thicknesses. The accompanying engravings represent an improved ore crusher, which is said to be very effective and economical in the use of power.
A short vertical cast iron cylinder, A, having in one side a discharge opening, H, contains all of the movable parts. The upper portion of the cylinder is lined with chilled iron plates, L, and an inclined chute, X, leads to the discharge opening, H. A rigid shaft, B, carries the circular crusher, C, and moves in a ball and socket joint at the upper end, and extends eccentrically through the boss of a bevel wheel, G, at its lower end, and rests on a step supported by a lever that may be adjusted by the screw, R.
The wheel, G, is driven by the pinion, P, on whose shaft there are a pulley and a fly-wheel. The double gyratory motion of the crusher, C, causes it to approach all portions of the lining, L, crushing whatever lies between. It is said that this machine is capable of crushing 10 tons of the hardest ore per hour. Its weight is 6, lbs. Enos Richmond, of Troy, N.
A blow upon the knob at the top of the plunger forces the chisel-pointed rods through holes in the casing into the meat, the casing resting on the surface of the steak. Southard and Volney R. Sears, of Falls City, Neb. An improved spring attachment for carriage tops, which is designed to prevent the rear bow from being bent by the weight of the top when turned back, has been patented by Mr. Robert E. McCormick, of Doylestown, O.
Espy Gallipher, of Schellsburg, Pa. A sliding rod occupies a portion of the groove; when this rod is drawn out it permits the oil to fill the groove; when it is pushed into the groove in the axle, the oil is ejected and a further supply is cut off. An improved pill machine, invented by Messrs. Fort and R. Moore, of Lewisville, Ark. The machine has mechanism for grinding and mixing ingredients, a grooved wheel and trough for forming the pills, and a device for applying powder. An improvement in millstone adjustments has been patented by Mr. Stephen P. Walling, of South Edmeston, N.
This invention consists in a screw applied to the end of the mill spindle on which the stone is rigidly held, so that the running stone may be forced by the screw away from the stationary stone and held against the action of a spring at the opposite end of the spindle, the object being to prevent the stones from becoming dulled by contact with each other. An improved attachment for sewing machines for soaking or waxing the thread as it passes the needle, has been patented by Mr. Pedro F. Fernandez, of San Juan, Porto Rico. The invention consists in a frame secured to the arm of a sewing machine by a thumb-screw, and provided with a clamping device for holding wax or soap.
A novel combination of a toggle and springs and levers for operating a drag saw has been patented by Mr. Harvey Hughes, of Wheat Ridge, Ohio. The saw, while properly guided, is free to move up or down without affecting the leverage. An improvement in filters, which consists in re-enforcing the felt disk with a backing of wire cloth to enable it to resist heavy water pressure, has been patented by Mr. Chatfield, of Aiken, S. A basket having light sheet metal sides attached to a wooden bottom by crimping the edges over a rib on the periphery of the bottom, has been patented by Mr. Samuel Friend, of Decatur, Ill.
The handle and lid may be easily removed to permit of packing and storage. An improved cross bar for fastening doors, patented by Mr. Richard Condon, of La Salle, Ill. The accompanying engraving represents a convenient and inexpensive table recently patented by Mr. Albert H. Hogins, of Morrisania, N. It is more especially designed for ironing, but it may be used for other purposes when closed up. The top is made in two tapering sections, A B. The section, B, is narrower than the other, and is pivoted at its wider end to a bar, E, which slides into a socket formed in the table.
The table has five legs, one of which, D, is attached to a sliding rail that supports the narrower end of the movable part of the top. The table is provided with a drawer in one end and with a tray, C, for containing blankets, etc. The convenience and practicability of this table for general laundry use, will be apparent without further explanation. The board, B, when drawn out will be used for ironing skirts, shirts, and other garments requiring a board of this character, and when the table is closed together and fastened by the hooks, it may be used in ironing larger articles.
When closed it presents the appearance of an ordinary table and may be used as such. The accompanying engraving represents two different styles of regulator, invented by Mr. Stenberg, in which the effect of centrifugal force is utilized. In a vessel, A, of parabolic shape is placed a disk, C, which floats on glycerine contained by the vessel, and is attached to the walls of the vessel by an annular membrane, so that it may rise and fall in a vertical direction as the glycerine is carried with more or less force toward the edge of the vessel by centrifugal action.
The inner surface of the vessel, A, is provided with radial grooves, by which the rotary motion of the vessel is communicated to the glycerine. To the center of the disk, C, is attached a vertical rod, which extends downward through the hollow shaft and is connected with governor valve. An increase of speed throws the glycerine toward the periphery of the valve, and, raising the disk, C, closes the steam valve; a diminution of speed permits the glycerine to fall back, when the disk descends and the valve opens.
The disk, C, has a small aperture for the admission and escape of air, and the apparatus is adjusted by pouring lead into the groove in the disk. The regulator shown in Fig. This apparatus is manufactured by Blancke Bros. Botel Tobago is an island in the South Seas which has lately been visited by a party of United States naval officers. They were surveying a rock east of the South Cape of Formosa, and called at this island.
They found a curious race of Malay stock. These aborigines did not know what money was good for. Nor had they ever used tobacco or rum. They gave the officers goats and pigs for tin pots and brass buttons, and hung around the vessel all day in their canoes waiting for a chance to dive for something which might be thrown overboard.
They wore clouts only, ate taro and yams, and had axes, spears, and knives made of common iron. Their canoes were made without nails, and were ornamented with geometrical lines. They wore the beards of goats and small shells as ornaments. Such is the account of these strange people given by Dr. Siegfried, in a letter read at the last meeting of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Noticing a statement made by Mr. Lintner, to the effect that the Persian insect powder would probably prove unavailing as a remedy against the ravages of the new carpet beetle Anthrenus , W.
Carpenter, of the U. A small quantity of the powder was introduced, on the point of a penknife, under a tumbler beneath which various insects were consecutively confined. The movements of the insects brought them in contact with the poison, which readily adhered to their body; in endeavoring to remove it from their appendages a few particles would be carried to the mouth and thence to the stomach, with fatal effect.
The results were briefly thus: A honey bee became helpless in 15 minutes; a mad wasp in 8 minutes; a small ant in 5 minutes; a large butterfly resisted the effects for over an hour, and apparently recovered, but died the next day; a house-fly became helpless in 10 minutes; a mosquito in 15; and a flea in 3 minutes. In experimenting on beetles, an insect was secured as nearly the size of the carpet beetle as could be found. It was easily affected, and became helpless in 12 minutes.
In these, and experiments with various other insects, the scent from the powder did not produce any bad effect on those subjected to its odor where actual contact was not possible; but when carried to the mandibles the effect was to produce complete paralysis of the motor nerves.
The experiments prove that all insects having open mouth parts are peculiarly susceptible to this popular insecticide. As a result, the writer does not hesitate to recommend the powder to housekeepers as an infallible agent in destroying the carpet beetle and preventing its ravages. The Persian insect powder liberally sprinkled upon the floor before putting down a carpet, and afterward freely placed around the edges, and never swept away, will suffice to preserve a large sized carpet.
No ill effects from its use need be feared by the householder, since the drug is poisonous to no kinds of animals except insects. The banana has recently found a new use in Venezuela. It has the property of keeping the soil moist round it, in a country where sometimes no rain falls for months; so it has been employed to give freshness, as well as shade, to the coffee plant, whose cultivation has been greatly extended Venezuela produced 38,, kilogrammes of coffee in The Venezuelans can consume but little of the banana fruit thus furnished, so that attention is being given to increasing its value as an export.
At the Paris Exhibition were samples of banana flour got by drying and pulverizing the fruit before maturity and brandy from the ripe fruit The flour has been analyzed by MM. Marcano and Muntz. It contains The accompanying engraving shows new form of stencil pen invented by Mr. Brickenridge, of La Fayette, Ind. In this instrument compressed air is used as a motive force for driving the perforating needle.
The inverted cup, shown in detail in Fig. The pitman is reciprocated by a simple treadle motion, which will be readily understood by reference to Fig. The cup has a small aperture covered by a valve to admit of the entrance of air when the diaphragm is drawn down. The pen, shown in detail in Fig. The diaphragm rests upon the enlarged end of a bar which carries at its lower end a perforating needle. The pen is connected with the driving mechanism by a flexible tube. The needle bar is pressed lightly against the diaphragm by a spiral spring.
When the treadle motion is operated the impelling diaphragm is rapidly vibrated, and through the medium of the air contained in the flexible tube it communicates motion to the pen diaphragm and consequently to the needle bar and needle. If, while the needle is reciprocated in this way, the pen is moved over the surface of the paper, a line of fine perforations will be made.
With this instrument stencils may be made for making multiplied copies of maps, drawings, and manuscripts. At the celebration in this city of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the formation of the company for laying the first Atlantic cable, Monday, March 10, the projector of the enterprise, Mr.
Cyrus W. Field, spoke as follows:. Neighbors and Friends: Twenty-five years ago this evening, in this house, in this room, and on this table, and at this very hour, was signed the agreement to form the New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph Company—the first company ever formed to lay an ocean cable. Roberts, and myself—are here to-night. The fifth, Mr. Chandler White, died two years after, and his place was taken by Mr.
Wilson G. Hunt, who is also present. Of my associates, it is to be said to their honor—as might have been expected from men of their high position and character—that they stood by the undertaking manfully for twelve long years, through discouragements such as nobody knows but themselves. Those who applaud our success know little through what struggles it was obtained. One disappointment followed another, till "hope deferred made the heart sick.
But not a man deserted the ship: all stood by it to the end. My brother Dudley is also here, who, as the counsel of the company, was present at the signing of the agreement, and went with Mr. White and myself the week after to Newfoundland, to obtain the charter, and was our legal adviser through those anxious and troubled years, when success seemed very doubtful. At St. John's the first man to give us a hearty welcome, and who aided us in obtaining our charter, was Mr.
Edward M. Archibald, then Prime Minister of Newfoundland, and now for more than twenty years the honored representative of Her Majesty's Government at this port, who is also here to-night. It is a matter for grateful acknowledgment that we were spared to see accomplished the work that we began; and that we meet now, at the end of a quarter of a century, to look with wonder at what has been wrought since in other parts of the world.
Our little company came into existence only a few weeks before the Western Union Telegraph Company, which is entitled to share in our congratulations, and has kindly brought a connecting wire into this room, by which we can this evening communicate with every town and village from the Atlantic to the Pacific; and by our sea cables, with Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the West Indies, and South America. While our small circle has been broken by death but once, very different has it been with the Atlantic Telegraph Company, which was formed in London in , to extend our line across the ocean.
At its beginning there were eighteen English and twelve American directors, thirty in all, of whom twenty-nine have either died or retired from the board. I alone still remain one of the directors. Many of the great men of science on both sides of the Atlantic, who inspired us by their knowledge and their enthusiasm, have passed away. We have lost Bache, whose Coast Survey mapped out the whole line of the American shores; and Maury, who first taught us to find a path through the depths of the seas; and Berryman, who sounded across the Atlantic; and Morse; and last, but not least, Henry.
Across the water we miss some who did as much as any men in their generation to make the name of England great—Faraday and Wheatstone, Stephenson and Brunel—all of whom gave us freely of their invaluable counsel, refusing all compensation, because of the interest which they felt in the solution of a great problem of science and engineering skill. It is a proud satisfaction to remember that while the two Governments aided us so generously with their ships, making surveys of the ocean, and even carrying our cables in the first expeditions, such men as these gave their support to an enterprise which was to unite the two countries, and in the end to bring the whole world together.
Others there are, among the living and the dead, to whom we are under great obligations. But I cannot repeat the long roll of illustrious names. Yet I must pay a passing tribute to one who was my friend, as he was the steadfast friend of my country—Richard Cobden. He was one of the first to look forward with the eye of faith to what has since come to pass.
As long ago as he had a sort of prophet's dream that the ocean might yet be crossed, and advised Prince Albert to devote the profits of the great London Exhibition of that year to an attempt thus to unite England with America. He did not live to see his dream fulfilled. But though men die, their works, their discoveries, and their inventions live. From that small beginning under this roof, arose an art till then scarcely known, that of telegraphing through the depths of the sea. Twenty-five years ago there was not an ocean cable in the world.
A few short lines had been laid across the channel from England to the Continent, but all were in shallow water. Even science hardly dared to conceive of the possibility of sending human intelligence through the abysses of the ocean. But when we struck out to cross the Atlantic, we had to lay a cable over 2, miles long, in water over 2 miles deep.
That great success gave an immense impulse to submarine telegraphy then in its infancy, but which has since grown till it has stretched out its fingers tipped with fire into all the waters of the globe. And, as if it were not enough to have messages sent with the speed of lightning, they must be sent in opposite directions at the same moment. I have just received a telegram from Valentia, Ireland, which reads, "This anniversary witnesses duplex working across the Atlantic as an accomplished fact"—by which the capacity of all our ocean cables is doubled.
Who can measure the effect of this swift intelligence passing to and fro? Already it regulates the markets of the world. But better still is the new relation into which it brings the different kindreds of mankind. Nations are made enemies by their ignorance of each other. A better acquaintance leads to a better understanding; the sense of nearness, the relation of neighborhood, awakens the feeling of brotherhood.
Is it not a sign that a better age is coming, when along the ocean beds strewn with the wrecks of war, now glide the messages of peace? One thing only remains which I still hope to be spared to see, and in which to take a part, the laying of a cable from San Francisco to the Sandwich Islands—for which I have received this very day a concession from King Kalakaua, by his Minister, who is here to night—and from thence to Japan, by which the island groups of the Pacific may be brought into communication with the continents on either side—Asia and America—thus completing the circuit of the globe.
But life is passing, and perhaps that is to be left to other hands. Many of our old companions have fallen, and we must soon give place to our successors. But though we shall pass away, it is a satisfaction to have been able to do something that shall remain when we are gone. If in what I have done to advance this enterprise, I have done something for the honor of my country and the good of the world, I am devoutly grateful to my Creator.
This has been the great ambition of my life, and is the chief inheritance which I leave to my children. In your article on the "Gary Motor," issue of March 8, page , you say: "There is no neutral line in the sense that polarity changes when Mr. Gary moves his piece of sheet iron with its attached shingle nail across the pole or near the pole of a magnet. Gary's claim of a neutral line is of course absurd, but you are wrong in saying that the polarity does not change under the conditions described in the Harper's Monthly article.
Gary is perfectly correct in claiming a change of polarity in that experiment, although his other claim of deriving from this change of polarity a continuous motion without consuming energy are manifestly absurd. The change of polarity is easily explained. If a bar of soft iron, whose length is two or three times the distance between the poles of the horseshoe magnet, be placed in front of the latter as in the sketch, and at some distance, poles will be induced, as shown by the letters N S.
Now let the bar approach the magnet. When within a short distance consequent points will be formed and the polarity at the ends will be reversed, the bar having four poles, as in the second sketch. The bar of soft iron must have certain dimensions depending on the size and power of the horseshoe magnet. By using a powerful electro-magnet in place of a permanent one, a soft iron bar of considerable size may be used, and the change of polarity exhibited by showing the repulsion in one case for the south pole and in the other for the north pole of a heavy permanent magnet.
When in the proper position a very small movement of the soft iron bar is sufficient to produce the change. I have just read the article in the issue of March 8, on the Gary Motor, and cannot refrain from offering a suggestion on the subject. When I read the article referred to in Harper's , I formed the same opinion of the so-called invention that the writer in the Scientific American has expressed, and, in the main, such is my opinion still.
I, however, tried the experiment by which Gary claims to prove the existence of his neutral line, and soon found the same explanation that the writer in the American has given. I then, curiously enough, modified the experiment in precisely the manner he suggests, placing the magnet in a vertical position, and using first a piece of sheet iron and then an iron wire under it. This was before seeing the article in the Scientific American. My experiment is well illustrated by the writer's diagram, except that the nail should be at the end of the iron wire, where its polarity is of course most strongly marked.
But the result is not as he states it. For, as the wire is brought up toward the magnet, the nail drops off before the wire touches the magnet. When the sheet iron is used, the point at which the nail drops off is farther from the magnet than in the case of the wire, and when it is brought nearer it will again pick up the nail, which then continues to cling until the iron touches the magnet and afterwards. Thus the existence of a line in which the soft iron, or induced magnet, does not attract the nail, and above and below which it does attract it, is demonstrated.
That the polarity of the induced magnet is reversed when it crosses this line may be demonstrated as follows: When it is held beyond or below this line Fig. But when contact occurs, the whole of the iron must possess the polarity of that part of the magnet which it touches, namely, negative. Hence in the position indicated in Fig. On the other hand, if the positive pole alone be made to approach, the nail will drop; but when it is very near, or in contact, it again holds the nail, and the iron is now positive; and if the negative pole also be now brought into contact, the polarity of the soft iron will correspond with that of the magnet, as shown in Fig.
These experiments should be performed with the soft iron under both poles of the magnet, and the ends of the former should extend somewhat beyond the poles of the latter, or the nail is liable to jump to the magnet as the "neutral" line is crossed. The position of the letters in Fig. It is probable that this reversal of polarity is susceptible of explanation by the known laws of magnetic currents, but if it has hitherto escaped observation, its discovery is certainly deserving of notice, and may lead to valuable results.
Of the fact, any one may easily convince himself by the simple experiments above described. In the description of the pneumatic clock, copied from La Nature , and published in your journal of date 1st of March, the invention is credited to me. Such is not the case. By an arrangement between Mr. Wenzel, Mr. Brandon of Paris, and myself, patents have been obtained in France, England, etc. Wenzel, of San Francisco. Some years ago I visited the "Ice Cave" of Decorah, Winneshiek county, Iowa, and having since been unable to receive any explanation of the wonderful phenomenon exhibited by it, I write, hoping that you or some correspondent may explain the paradox.
The thriving town of Decorah lies in a romantic valley of the Upper Iowa River, and the cave is almost within its corporate limits. Following the left bank of the stream, one soon reaches the vicinity, and with a hard scramble through a loose shale, up the side of a precipitous hill, forming the immediate bank of the river, the entrance is gained—an opening 5 feet wide and 8 feet high. These dimensions generally describe the cave's section. At times the ceiling is so low that progress on hands and knees is necessary. About feet from the entrance the "Ice Chamber" is reached.
At this spot the cave widens into a well proportioned room, 8 by 12 feet. The floor is solid ice of unknown thickness, and on the right hand wall of the room a curtain of ice drops to the floor, from a crevice extending horizontally in the rock at the height of one's eyes. Close examination discovers the water oozing from this crevice, and as it finds its way down the side it freezes in the low temperature of the chamber.
Singularly this one crevice, and that no wider than a knife edge, furnishes this, nature's ice house, with the necessary water. In common with all visitors, we detached some large pieces of ice and with them hurriedly departed, glad to regain the warmth of the outside world. The most remarkable fact in connection with this wonder is that the water only freezes in the summer.
As the cold of actual winter comes on the ice of the cave gradually melts, and when the river below is frozen by the fierce cold of Northern Iowa, the ice has disappeared and a muddy slush has taken the place of the frigid floor. I would add that the ice chamber forms the terminus of the cave. Beyond a shallow crevice in the crumbling rock forbids further advance.
The rock formation of this region is the Portland sandstone. Why should the temperature of the ice chamber be such as to freeze the water trickling into it? And above all, why should the ice disappear with the cold of winter? On the evening of February 26, , the writing telegraph of Mr. Cowper, of London, was exhibited in operation before the Society of Telegraph Engineers, in that city. It is a curious and remarkable invention.
By its use the handwriting of the operator may be transmitted, but a double circuit, that is, two telegraph wires, are used. The operator moves with his hand an upright pointer or stylus, with which he writes the message on paper. The stylus has two arms connected with it, one of which arms, when the stylus makes an upward movement, causes a current to be sent over one wire, while the other arm causes a current to pass over the other wire when the stylus is moved laterally.
These two motions are, at the receiving end of the line, made to operate on the needles of galvanometers, and the latter are by silk threads combined or connected with a delicately suspended ink tube, from which a minute stream of ink falls upon the strip of paper below it; the arrangement being such that the combined motions of the galvanometers so move the ink pen as to make it correspond to the motion of the stylus at the sending end. The apparatus is said to work very well, and it is expected that it will form a useful adjunct to the art of telegraphy.
We present herewith a facsimile of writing done by this new instrument, which has been worked with success over a line of forty miles length. It is hardly probable that it can compete in rapidity with some of the telegraph instruments now in use; but for many purposes it is likely to become important, while in point of ingenuity it is certainly a great achievement, and the author is deserving of the highest credit. Luther, while absent in attendance upon the Missionary Convention, held in Addison, Vt.
Nott a rare and curious geological specimen from the shores of Lake Champlain. It is a slab of limestone, about eleven inches long by six inches wide, which seems to be composed almost entirely of fossils. There is not half an inch square of the surface which does not show a fossil. The latter is the only shell which has existed from the first dawn of life until the present time without change.
The specimens of existing Lingula are precisely similar to those found in the earliest geological formations. There are also in the slab several rare specimens of seaweed, remains of which are seldom found at so early an age in the geological history of the world. The slab belongs to the lower Silurian formation, the first in which organic remains are found. It is probably from the Trenton epoch of that age. If geologists can be trusted, at the time the little animals, whose remains are thus preserved, were living, the only part of this continent which had appeared above the primeval ocean was a strip of land along the present St.
Lawrence River and the northern shores of the great lakes, with a promontory reaching out toward the Adirondacks, and a few islands along what is now the Atlantic coast line. The most recent of the brilliant series of telegraphic marvels which has from time to time, and especially of late, engaged the attention of the world, is the "telegraphic pen" of Mr.
Cowper, the well known engineer of Great George street, Westminster. This ingenious apparatus, which constitutes the first real telegraph, was publicly shown by its inventor at the meeting of the Society of Telegraph Engineers on Wednesday, February There had been no lack of copying telegraphs hitherto. All of these instruments telegraph an almost perfect copy of the writing or sketch submitted to them by means of synchronous mechanism. But the process is necessarily complex and slow; whereas by the new device a person may take the writing pencil in his hand, and himself transmit his message in the act of writing it.
The principle which guided Mr. Cowper to a solution of the problem which he has successfully overcome, is the well known mathematical fact that the position of any point in a curve can be determined by its distance from two rectangular co-ordinates. It follows, then, that every position of the point of a pencil, stylus, or pen, as it forms a letter, can be determined by its distance from two fixed lines, say the adjacent edges of the paper.
Moreover it is obvious that if these distances could be transmitted by telegraph and recombined so as to give a resultant motion to a duplicate pen, a duplicate copy of the original writing would be produced. But inasmuch as the writing stylus moves continuously over the paper, the process of transmission would require to be a continuous one; that is to say, the current traversing the telegraph line, and conveying the distances in question or what comes to the same thing, the up and down, and direct sidelong ranges of the stylus would require to vary continuously in accordance with the range to be transmitted.
Cowper effects this by employing two separate telegraphic circuits, each with its own wire, battery, sending, and receiving apparatus. One of these circuits is made to transmit the up and down component writing of the pencil's motion, while the other simultaneously transmits its sidelong component. At the receiving station these two components are then recomposed by a pantograph arrangement of taut cords, or levers, and the resultant motion is communicated to the duplicate pen at that place.
The plan adopted by Mr. Cowper to transmit each continuously varying component is to cause the resistance of the circuit to vary very closely with the component in question. P is the writing style, which is held in the writer's hand in the ordinary way, while he shapes the letters one by one on paper pulled uniformly underneath by means of clockwork.
To P are attached, at right angles, two arms, a a , one for each circuit; but as it is only necessary to consider one of the circuits, say that sending up and down motions, we will confine our attention for the present to the arm, a. One pole of the sending battery, B, is connected to the arm, a , the other pole being connected to earth.
Now the arm, a , is fitted with a sliding contact at its free extremity, and as the pencil, P, is moved in writing, a slides lengthwise across the edges of a series of thin metal contact plates, C, insulated from each other by paraffined paper. Between each pair of these plates there is a resistance coil, C, and the last of these is connected through the last plate to the line, L. It will be seen that as a slides outward across the plates the current from the battery has to pass through fewer coils, since a short-circuits a number of coils proportional to its motion. But the fewer of these coils in circuit the stronger will be the current in the line; so that the extent of the motion of the arm, a , in the direction of its length, that is to say, the direct component of the motion of the pencil along the line of the arm, a , is attended by a corresponding change in the current traversing the line.
If the pencil makes a long up and down stroke there will be a strong current in the line, if a short one there will be a weak current, and so on. A precisely similar arrangement is used to transmit the sidelong motion of the pencil along the line, L. The current from the line, L, flows at the receiving station through a powerful galvanometer, G, to earth. The galvanometer has a stout needle, one tip of which is connected to a duplicate pen, P, by a thread, t , which is kept taut by a second thread stretched by a spring, s '. The current from the line, L', flows through a similar galvanometer, G', to earth.
The needle of G' is also connected to the pen, P, by a taut thread, t ', stretched by means of the spring, s. Now, since the needle of each of these galvanometers deflects in proportion to the strength of the current flowing through its coil, the points of these two needles keep moving with the varying currents. But since these currents vary the motions of the sending pen, the receiving pen controlled by the united movements of the needles will trace out a close copy of the original writing.
We give on another page a facsimile of a sentence written by Mr. Cowper's telegraph. The receiving pen is a fine glass siphon, drawing off aniline ink from a small glass holder. There are thirty-two coils, C, in each circuit, with a corresponding number of contact plates, c , so as to get accuracy of working. A few Daniell's cells are sufficient to operate the apparatus, and writing has been already sent successfully over a line 40 miles in length.
The writing may be received either of the same size or larger or smaller than the original, as the case may be. At present the writing must not be too hurried, that is, unless the characters are bold and well formed; but further improvement will, of course, quicken the working of the apparatus. The engravings, Figs. It will be seen that each arm, d , is connected to its particular battery, and each set of contact plates to its particular line. It will be understood that the varying currents from the lines are allowed to flow through the coils, i i , so as to deflect the needles, and that the deflections of the needles follow, so to speak, the variations of the currents.
The electro-magnets are magnetized by a local battery; permanent magnets might, however, take their place with a gain in simplicity. Now the writing pen, k , is connected to the nearest tip of the needle, h , of each galvanoscope by threads, n n , which are kept taut by the fibers, o 1 o 2 o 3 , the springs, o , and the pins, o 4. In this way the motions of the needles are recombined in the motion of the duplicate pen upon the paper, p. The long leg of the siphon reaches down to the surface of the paper, p , which is pulled along beneath it in contact with the film of ink filling the point of the tube.
When the siphon is at rest its point marks a zero line along the middle of the paper, but when the receiver is working, the siphon point forms each letter of the message upon the paper as it passes. The splendid exhibit of the French aluminum manufacturers at the late Exhibition has again called attention to that metal, which is so admirably adapted to many purposes on account of its great lightness and its stability under the influence of the atmosphere.
While aluminum industry has heretofore been thought to be confined to France solely, we are now told by Mr. Bambery, in the Annual Report of the Society of Berlin Instrument Makers, that for some years past aluminum has been extensively manufactured in Berlin. The articles manufactured principally are nautical instruments, as sextants, compasses, etc.
The German navy is supplied throughout with aluminum instruments. Aluminum is, in Berlin, generally used pure, and cast pieces only are composed of aluminum containing about 5 per cent of silver. Nevertheless the use of aluminum will remain limited, even in case the cost of manufacturing it could be materially reduced, until some method shall have been discovered by which aluminum may be soldered. This difficulty has, in spite of all efforts, not yet been overcome, and for some purposes, to which the metal would otherwise be well adapted, it remains so far unavailable.
Here then is a chance for some ingenious mind. The accompanying engraving represents, in perspective and in section, an improved door bolt, recently patented by Mr. Thomas Hoesly, of New Glaras, Wis. The principal features of this bolt will be understood by reference to the engraving. On the plate or body are cast two loops or guides for the bolt, and the plate is slotted under the bolt, and a lug projects into the slot and bears against a spring contained by a small casing riveted to the back of the plate.
The end of the bolt is beveled, and its operation is similar to that of the ordinary door latch. Two handles are provided, one of which is of sufficient length to reach through the door, and a pawl or dog accompanies the bolt, which may be attached to the door with a single screw, and is to be used in locking the door. The bolt is very simple and strong, suitable for shops, out-buildings such as barns, stables, etc. To secure a good draught the chimney should be of sufficient size, should be carried up above surrounding objects, should be as straight as possible throughout its length, and should be as smooth as possible inside, to avoid friction.
As a draught is caused by unequal temperatures, the chimney should be so arranged as to avoid a rapid radiation of heat. If in an exterior wall there should be at least 8 inches of brickwork between the flue and the exterior surface. For country houses it is much better to have the chimneys run up through the interior, as the flue is more easily kept warm, and the heat that is radiated helps to warm the house.
The most frequent cause of a "smoky chimney" is the insufficient size of the flue for the grate or fireplace connected therewith. The flue should not be less than one eighth the capacity of the square of the width and height of the grate or fireplace. That is, if the grate has a front opening 20 inches wide and 26 inches high, the flue should be 8 in. Where there is more than one inlet to the same flue, the sum of all the inlets should not more than equal the size of the flue. A number of stoves may be connected with the same flue, one above another, if this rule is observed.
A square flue is better than a narrow one, as in two flues containing the same number of square inches the square flue would have the smallest amount of wall surface, and consequently less friction for the ascending currents, and less absorption of heat by the walls. Chimneys should be closely built, having no cracks nor openings through which external air may be drawn to weaken the draught.
If they could be made throughout their length as impervious to air as a tube of glass, with interior surface as smooth, one cause of smoky chimneys would be removed. A downward current of air is frequently caused by some contiguous object higher than the chimney, against which the wind strikes. This higher object may sometimes be quite a distance from the chimney, and still affect it badly. A good chimney top constructed to prevent a down draught will remedy this difficulty.
Each grate or fireplace should have a flue to itself. Under very favorable conditions, two grates or fireplaces might be connected with the same flue, but it is not a good plan. We have known grates and fireplaces connected with two flues, where they have been built under a window for instance, and, owing to there being insufficient room for a flue of suitable size, a flue has been run up on each side of the window.
This is a very bad plan, and never can work well; it requires too much heat to warm both flues, and if the room in which the grate or fireplace is situated should be pretty close, so that there was no other entrance for air, there is danger that it would circulate down one flue and up the other, forcing smoke out of the fireplace into the room. The refuse matter and garbage of large cities is in the main composed of animal and vegetable offal of the kitchens; of the sweepings of warehouses, manufactories, saloons, groceries, public and private houses; of straw, sawdust, old bedding, tobacco stems, ashes, old boots, shoes, tin cans, bottles, rags, and feathers; dead cats, dogs, and other small animals; of the dust and sweepings of the streets, the condemned fruit, vegetables, meat, and fish of the markets, all of which compose a mass of the most obnoxious and unhealthy matter that can be deposited near human habitations.
The inventor of the furnace shown in the accompanying engravings aims to produce a change of form and of chemical nature and a great reduction in bulk of all such refuse and garbage within the limits of the city where it accumulates, without screening, separating, preparing, or mixing, without the expense of using other fuel, without any offensive odors being generated in the operation, and to produce an entirely unobjectionable residuum or product that may be made useful. As a rule organic matter largely preponderates in the refuse, being as high in some instances as 94 per cent.
There is always more than enough to generate sufficient heat to fuse the earthy or inorganic portion, which is mainly composed of sand, clay, and the alkalies from the coal and vegetable ashes, etc. By producing a high degree of heat in the combustion of the organic portion of the refuse with a forced blast or forced draught, the non-combustible elements are fused, and form a vitreous slag, which is entirely inodorous and unobjectionable, and which may be utilized for many purposes.
The upper section or cone of the consuming furnace is built of boiler iron, and lined with fire brick resting upon an iron plate, which is supported by iron columns. The hearth is made of fire brick, and is in the form of an inverted cone, being smaller at the bottom and larger at the top, as shown in Fig. The sides of the hearth are perforated near the bottom with arches for the tuyeres or blast pipes, and also in front for the special blast pipe and the tapping hole.
The top of the furnace is closed with an iron plate, provided with a circular opening, through which the hopper enters the top of the furnace.