Against Timarchos

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The content of the Open Access version may differ from that of the licensed version. Document information Title:. Reading Homer from the rostrum: poems and laws in Aeschines' Against Timarchus. Goldhill, S. Conference, Performance culture and Athenian democracy; ; Cambridge. Table of contents conference proceedings The table of contents of the conference proceedings is generated automatically, so it can be incomplete, although all articles are available in the TIB. Performative aspects of the choral voice in Greek tragedy: civic identity in performance. Similar titles.

Olding, G. British Library Conference Proceedings Sissa, G. Lape, S. British Library Conference Proceedings. Demosthenes was orphaned at the age of seven. Although his father provided well for him, his legal guardians, Aphobus and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance. Demosthenes started to learn rhetoric because he wished to take his guardians to court and because he was of "delicate physique" and couldn't receive gymnastic education, customary. In Parallel Lives Plutarch states that Demosthenes built an underground study where he practiced speaking and shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public.

He practiced speaking in front of a large mirror. As soon as Demosthenes came of age in BC, he demanded they render an account of their management. According to Demosthenes, the account revealed the misappropriation of his property. Although his father left an estate of nearly fourteen talents, Demosthenes asserted his guardians had left nothing "except the house, fourteen slaves and thirty silver minae ". At the age of 20 Demosthenes sued his trustees in order to recover his patrimony and delivered five orations: three Against Aphobus during and BC and two Against Onetor during and BC; the courts fixed Demosthenes ' damages at ten talents.

When all the trials came to an end, he only succeeded in retrieving a portion of his inheritance. According to Pseudo-Plutarch , Demosthenes was married once; the only information about his wife, whose name is unknown, is that she was the daughter of Heliodorus , a prominent citizen. Demosthenes had a daughter, "the only one who called him father", according to Aeschines in a trenchant remark.

His daughter died unmarried a few days before Philip II's death. In his speeches, Aeschines uses pederastic relations of Demosthenes as a means to attack him. In the case of Aristion , a youth from Plataea who lived for a long time in Demosthenes' house, Aeschines mocks the "scandalous" and "improper" relation. In another speech, Aeschines brings up the pederastic relation of his opponent with a boy called Cnosion; the slander that Demosthenes' wife slept with the boy suggests that the relationship was contemporary with his marriage.

Aeschines claims that Demosthenes made money out of young rich men, such as Aristarchus , the son of Moschus , whom he deceived with the pretence that he could make him a great orator. While still under Demosthenes' tutelage, Aristarchus killed and mutilated a certain Nicodemus of Aphidna. Aeschines accused Demosthenes of complicity in the murder, pointing out that Nicodemus had once pressed a lawsuit accusing Demosthenes of desertion , he accused Demosthenes of having been such a bad erastes to Aristarchus so as not to deserve the name.

His crime, according to Aeschines, was to have betrayed his eromenos by pillaging his estate pretending to b. Aeschines Aeschines was a Greek statesman and one of the ten Attic orators. Although it is known he was born in Athens , the records regarding his parentage and early life are conflicting.

Aeschines' father was an elementary school teacher of letters, his mother Glaukothea assisted in the religious rites of initiation for the poor. After assisting his father in his school, he tried his hand at acting with indifferent success, served with distinction in the army, held several clerkships, amongst them the office of clerk to the Boule.

Among the campaigns that Aeschines participated in were Phlius in the Peloponnese , Battle of Mantinea , Phokion's campaign in Euboea ; the fall of Olynthus brought Aeschines into the political arena, he was sent on an embassy to rouse the Peloponnese against Philip II of Macedon. In spring of BC, Aeschines addressed the assembly of Ten Thousand in Megalopolis , Arcadia urging them to unite and defend their independence against Philip. In the summer BC, he was a member of the peace embassy to Philip, where he found it necessary, in order to counteract the prejudice vigorously fomented by his opponents, to defend Philip and describe him at a meeting of the Athenian popular assembly as being Greek.

His dilatoriness during the second embassy sent to ratify the terms of peace led to him being accused by Demosthenes and Timarchus on a charge of high treason. Aeschines counterattacked by claiming that Timarchus had forfeited the right to speak before the people as a consequence of youthful debauches which had left him with the reputation of being a whore and prostituting himself to many men in the port city of Piraeus ; the suit succeeded and Timarchus was sentenced to atimia and politically destroyed, according to Demosthenes. This comment was interpreted by Pseudo-Plutarch in his Lives of the Ten Orators as meaning that Timarchos hanged himself upon leaving the assembly, a suggestion contested by some modern historians; this oration, Against Timarchus , is considered important because of the bulk of Athenian laws it cites.

As a consequence of his successful attack on Timarchus, Aeschines was cleared of the charge of treason. Aeschines was again acquitted. By way of revenge, Aeschines endeavoured to fix the blame for these disasters upon Demosthenes. In BC, when Ctesiphon proposed that his friend Demosthenes should be rewarded with a golden crown for his distinguished services to the state, Aeschines accused him of having violated the law in bringing forward the motion; the matter remained in abeyance till BC, when the two rivals delivered their speeches Against Ctesiphon and On the Crown.

The result was a overwhelming victory for Demosthenes. Aeschines went into voluntary exile at Rhodes, he afterwards removed to Samos. His three speeches, called by the ancients "the Three Graces ," rank next to those of Demosthenes. Photius knew of nine letters by him. Simcox and W. Simcox, Richardson, G. Watkin and Evelyn S. The Speeches of Aeschines. Translated by Charles Darwin Adams. Loeb Classical Library Harvard University Press. Available at archive.

ISBN Aeschines. University of Texas Press, Austin, Holm, vol. Und seine Zeit. On Timarchos see "Aechines" in Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Dynes, Wayne R.

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Garland Publishing, Greek Homosexuality book Greek Homosexuality is a book about homosexuality in ancient Greece by the classical scholar Kenneth Dover , in which the author uses archaic and classical archaeological and literary sources to discuss ancient Greek sexual behavior and attitudes. He addresses the iconography of vase paintings, the speeches in the law courts, the comedies of Aristophanes , as well as the content of other literary and philosophical source texts; the first modern scholarly work on its topic, Greek Homosexuality received some negative reviews but was enormously influential, helping to shape the views of other classicists.

Dover has been praised for discussion of sexual practices such as intercrural copulation. In the preface Dover writes that the aim of the work is: "To describe those phenomena of homosexual behaviour and sentiment which are to be found in Greek art and literature between the eighth and second centuries B.

The conclusions drawn are that the Greeks regarded homosexuality in general to be natural and salutary, their actual practices were circumscribed by cultural norms. In the case of the ancient Greeks — the Athenians — the book claims that the sexual roles of the lovers were polarized.

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Dover concludes that the Greeks conceived of same-sex relations as intergenerational and identifies the terms for the roles of the two male lovers, erastes , "the lover," that is, the older active partner, eromenos, "the beloved", indicating the adolescent male beloved. Basing himself on the work of Sir John Beazley , Dover divides the evidence of surviving vase painting depicting these type of relationships into three types; some show the erastes offering a gift to the eromenos. Others depict the "up and down" gesture — the erastes attempting to fondle the eromenos while, with the other hand, he is turning his head to look into his eyes.

The third group older black-figure vases, show the couple engaging in interfemoral intercourse or, in a couple of instances, anal intercourse. Traditionally, the young beloved, when he reached the age of manhood — indicated in the iconography by his growth of a beard — would switch roles and become a lover himself, seeking out a younger male for a love relationship.

In life he was expected to marry and produce new citizens for the state. To fail to switch roles was considered unmanly and irresponsible, Dover points out the mockery that Aristophanes inflicted in passing, in several plays, on a certain Athenian citizen, notorious for his persistence in the role of beloved long after reaching his maturity. With regard to the record of cases in the law courts, Dover concentrates on a certain case initiated by the orator Demosthenes. Demosthenes had been in an embassy sent to the neighboring state of Macedonia which had not only failed to achieve its mission, but was suspected of having accepted bribes from king Phillip to abandon their mission.

Upon the return to Athens , Demosthenes initiated a prosecution of his fellow ambassadors for bribery in an attempt to avoid being indicted himself. The defendants had the charges dismissed on the grounds that one of Demosthenes' co-plaintiffs, had been a boy prostitute and had thereby lost his rights as an Athenian citizen, becoming ineligible to bring suit in Athenian courts.

Dover extensively quotes from the records of the trial to demonstrate, among other things, that while the Athenians attached no stigma to same sex relations per se, they did adhere to certain conventions. Greek Homosexuality received some negative reviews; the book had an enormous impact on the study of homosexuality in ancient Greece because of Dover's credentials as an historian and a philologist.

It influenced scholars such as the philosopher Michel Foucault , the classicists David M. Halperin , John J. Winkler, Eva Cantarella. Eva C. How- ever, since we are in court, call, if you please, Glaucon of Cholargus, who restored Pittalacus to freedom, 1 and read his affidavit and the others.

I rescued Pittalacus and secured his free- dom, when Hegesandrus was attempting to make him his slave. Some time after this, Pittalacus came to me and said that he wished to send to Hegesandrus and come to such settlement with him that the suits should be dropped, both his own suit against Hegesandrus and Timarchus, and the suit of Hegesandrus for his enslavement.

And they came to a settlement. Amphisthenes testifies to the same effect. I have written out for him an affidavit that is too re- spectable for a man of his character, but a little more explicit than the one [ wrote for Misgolas. I am 1 The comparative freedom of a state-slave in place of the slavery that Hegesandrus had attempted to impose on him.

TijBevfia tovto, to? Why then do I call him to testify? That I may demonstrate to you what sort of man this kind of life produces — how regardless of the gods, how contemptuous of the laws, how in- different to all disgrace. Please call Hegesandrus. When I returned from my voyage to the Hellespont, I found Timarchus, son of Arizelus, staying at the house of Pittalacus, the gambler. As a result of this acquaintance 1 enjoyed the same intimacy with Timarchus as with Leodamas previously. This too is plain at once, that since he is not willing to testify now, he will presently appear for the defence.

And no wonder, by Zeus!

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For he will come up here to the witness stand, I suppose, trusting in his re- cord, honourable and upright man that he is, an enemy of all evil-doing, a man who does not know who Leodamas was — Leodamas, at whose name you yourselves raised a shout as the affidavit was being read. Shall I yield to the temptation to use language somewhat more explicit than my own self-respect allows? Tell me, fellow citizens, in the name of Zeus and the other gods, when a man has defiled 1 The Clerk of the Court now reads the affidavit, and calls on Hegesandrus to swear to it.

He refuses. In what excesses of bestiality are we not to imagine them to have indulged when they were drunken and alone!


Don't you suppose that Hegesandrus, in his desire to wipe out his own notorious practices with Leodamas, which are known to all of you, made extravagant demands on the defendant, hoping to make Timarchus' conduct so exceedingly bad that his own earlier behaviour would seem to have been modest indeed? And yet you will presently see Hegesandrus and his brother Crobylus leaping to the platform here and most vehemently and eloquently declaring that what I say is all nonsense. They will demand that I present witnesses to testify explicitly where he did it, how he did it, or who saw him do it, or what sort of an act it was — a shameless demand, I think.

For I do not believe your memory is so short that you have forgotten the laws that you heard read a few moments ago, in which it stands written that if any one hires any Athenian for this act, or if any one lets himself out for hire, he is liable to the most severe penalties, and the same penalties for both offences. Now what man is so reckless that he would be willing to give in plain words testimony which, if the testimony be true, would inevitably amount to in- formation against himself, as liable to extreme punish- ment?

Only one alternative then remains : that the man who submitted to the act shall acknowledge it. But he is on trial on precisely this charge, that after such conduct as this, he breaks the laws by speaking before the assembly. By Poseidon, a fine home this city will be for us, if when we our- selves know that a thing has been done in fact, we are to ignore it unless some man come forward here and testify to the act in words as explicit as they must be shameless.

But pray consider the case with the help of illus- trations ; and naturally the illustrations will have to be like the pursuits of Timarchus. You see the men over yonder who sit in the bawdy-houses, men who confessedly pursue the profession. Yet these per- sons, brought to such straits as that, do nevertheless make some attempt to cover their shame : they shut their doors. Now if, as you are passing along the street, any one should ask you, " Pray, what is the fellow doing at this moment?

In the same way, therefore, you ought to judge the case of Timarchus, and not to ask whether anyone saw, but whether he has done the deed. For by heaven, Timarchus, what shall a man say? What would you say yourself about another man on trial on this charge? What shall we say when a young man leaves his father's house and spends his nights in other people's houses, a conspicuously handsome young man?

When he enjoys costly suppers with- out paying for them, and keeps the most expensive flute-girls and harlots? Does it take a wizard to explain all that? Is it not perfectly plain that the man who makes such demands must himself necessarily be furnishing in return certain pleasures to the men who are spending their money on him? I say "furnishing pleasures," because, by the Olympian Zeus, I don't know how I can use more euphemistic language than that in referring to your contemptible conduct.

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But also look at the case, if you please, with the help of certain illustrations taken from the field of politics, especially matters which you have in hand just now. We have been having revisions of the citizen-lists in the demes, and each one ot us has submitted to a vote regarding himself, to determine whether he is a genuine citizen or not.

Now whenever I am in the court-room listening to the pleas, 1 I see that the same argument always prevails with you : when the prosecutor says " Gen- tlemen of the jury, the men of the deme have under oath excluded this man on their own personal know- ledge, although nobody brought accusation or gave testimony against him," you immediately applaud, assuming that the man who is before the court has no claim to citizenship. For I suppose you are of the opinion that when one knows a thing perfectly of his own knowledge, he does not need argument or testi- mony in addition.

Come now, in God's name! The juror who wished to vote for conviction cast the disk with the hollow stem, and vice versa. The unused 66 AGAINST TIMARCHUS, being tried in court and were being brought before you as now, except that it were not permitted by constitution or statute either for me to accuse or for him to defend himself, and if this crier who is now standing at my side were putting the question to you in the formula prescribed bylaw, "The hollow ballot for the juror who believes that Timarchus has been a prostitute, the solid ballot for the juror who does not," 1 what would be your vote?

I am abso- lutely sure that you would decide against him. Now if one of you should ask me, " How do you know that we would vote against him? For every time he used such words as "walls" or "tower" that needed repairing, or told how so-and-so had been "taken off" somewhere, you immediately laughed and shouted, and yourselves spoke the words that belong to those exploits of which he, to your knowledge, is guilty.

As the juror came forward with the two disks, one in each hand, the ends of the stem pressed between thumb and forefinger, even the nearest bystander could not see which disk he cast to be counted, and which he discarded. Probably nvpyos suggested the women's apartments, and airayetv may have suggested seduction. The member of the Areopagus who spoke was Autolycus, a man whose life has been good and pious, by Zeus and Apollo, and worthy of that body.

Now when in the course of his speech he declared that the Areopagus dis- approved the proposition of Timarchus, and said, " You must not be surprised, fellow citizens, it Timarchus is better acquainted than the Senate of the Areopagus with this lonely spot and the region of the Pnyx," then you applauded and said Auto- lycus was right, for Timarchus was indeed acquainted with it. Be 87 eveo-Tacriv eVi. But you drove him off the platform, replying, " We know, Pyrrandrus, that we ought not to laugh in their presence, but so strong is the truth that it prevails — over all the calculations of men.

When I, fellow citizens, say not a word, you of yourselves shout the name of the acts of which you know he is guilty ; strange, then, it would be if, when I name them, you cannot remember them ; even had there been no trial of this case, he would have been convicted ; strange indeed then if, when the charge has been proved, he is to be acquitted! But since I have mentioned the revision of the lists and the measures proposed by Demophilus, 2 I wish to cite a certain other illustration in this con- nection.

For this Demophilus had previously brought in a measure of the following sort : he declared that there were certain men who were attempting to bribe the members of the popular assembly and the courts as well — the same assertion that Nicostratus also has made veiy recently. Some cases under this charge have been in the courts, others are still pending. Some MSS. Is there any man who would have testified, or any prosecutor who would have undertaken to present such proof of the act?

Surely not. What then? Were the accused acquitted? No, by Heracles! They were punished with death, though their crime was far less, by Zeus and Apollo, than that of this defendant ; those poor wretches met such a fate because they were unable to defend themselves against old age and poverty together, the greatest of human misfortunes ; the defendant should suffer it because he is unwilling to restrain his own lewdness. Now if this trial were taking place in another city, and that city were the referee, I should have demanded that you should be my witnesses, you who best know that I am speaking the truth.

But since the trial is at Athens, and you are at the same time judges and witnesses of the truth of what I say, it is my place to refresh your memory, and yours not to disbelieve me. For if in the future, as always in the past, this practice is going to be carried on in secret, and in lonely places and in private houses, and if the man who best knows the facts, but has denied one of his fellow citizens, is to be liable to the severest punishment if he testifies to the truth, while the man on trial, who has been denounced by the testimony of his own life and of the truth, is to demand that he be judged, not by the facts that are notorious, but by the testimony of witnesses, then the law is done away with, and so is the truth, while a plain path is marked out by which the worst wrongdoers may escape.

For what foot-pad or adulterer or assassin, or what man who has committed the greatest crimes, but has done it secretly, will be brought to justice? For whereas such of these criminals as are caught in the act are instantly punished with death, if they acknowledge the crime, those who have done the act secretly and deny their guilt, are tried in the courts, and the truth can be determined by circumstantial evidence only. Take the example of the Senate of the Areopagus, the most scrupulous tribunal in the city.

I myself have before now seen many men convicted before this tribunal, though they spoke most eloquently, and presented witnesses ; and I know that before now certain men have won their case, although they spoke most feebly, and although no witnesses testified for them. For it is not on the strength of the pleading alone, nor of the testimony alone, that the members of the court give their verdict, but on the strength of their own knowledge and their own investigations. Therefore, my fellow citizens, I call upon you to make your decision in this case in the same manner.

In the first place, let nothing be more credible in your eyes than your own knowledge and conviction regarding this man Timarchus. In the second place, look at the case in the light, not of the present moment, but of the time that is past. For the words spoken be- fore to-day about Timarchus and his practices were spoken because they were true ; but what will be said to-day will be spoken because of the trial, and with intent to deceive you.

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Give, therefore, the verdict that is demanded by the longer time, and the truth, and your own knowledge. And yet a certain speech-writer who is concoct- ing his defence 1 says that I contradict myself; since it seems to him impossible, he says, for the same man to have been a prostitute and to have consumed his patrimony. For, he says, to have sinned against one's own body is the act of a boy, but to have consumed one's patrimony is that of a man.

And furthermore he says that those who de- file themselves exact pay for it. He therefore goes up and down the market-place expressing his wonder and amazement that one and the same man should have prostituted himself and also have consumed his patrimony. Now if anyone does not understand the facts of the case, I will try to explain them more clearly. Hegesandrus, who kept Timarchus, had married an heiress.

But when these re- sources had been wasted and gambled away and eaten up, and this defendant had lost his youthful charm, and, as you would expect, no one would any longer give him anything, while his lewd and depraved nature constantly craved the same indul- gences, and with excessive incontinence kept making demand after demand upon him, then, at last, in- cessantly drawn back to his old habits, he resorted to the devouring of his patrimony.

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And not only did he eat it up, but, if one may so say, he also drank it up! He sold one piece of property after another, not for what it was worth — he couldn't wait for a higher offer nor even for the bare value, but let it go for what it would fetch on the instant, so urgently did he hasten to gratify his lusts. His father left him a fortune which another man would have found sufficient for the service of the state also.

There was a house south of the Acro- polis, a suburban estate at Sphettus, another piece ot land at Alopeke, and besides there were nine or ten slaves who were skilled shoemakers, each of whom paid him a fee of two obols a day, and the super- intendent of the shop three obols. Certain men also owed him money, and there were house furnishings. Such slaves could do business for themselves, or hire themselves out to manufacturers, contractors, etc. Much of the skilled labour of the city was performed by slaves. The city residence he sold to Nausicrates, the comic poet ; 1 afterward Cleae- netus, the chorus-master, bought it of Nausicrates for twenty minas.

The suburban estate Mnesitheus of Myrrinoussa bought of him, a large tract, but wretchedly run down by his neglect. The place at Alopeke, distant eleven or twelve furlongs from the city-wall, his mother begged and besought him, as I have heard, to spare and not to sell, or, if he would do nothing more, at least to leave her there a place to be buried in.

But even from this spot he did not withhold his hand ; this too he sold, for 2, drachmas. Of the slaves, men and women, he left not one ; he has sold them all. To prove that I am not lying, I will produce witness that his father left the slaves ; but if he denies that he has sold them, let him pro- duce their persons in court. But to prove, further, that his father had lent money to certain men, and that Timarchus collected and has spent it, I will call as witnesses for you Metagenes of Sphettus, who owed more than thirty minas, and paid to the defendant what was still due at his father's death, seven minas.

Please call Metagenes of Sphettus. Suidas attests the name Nausicrates as that of a comic poet, and mentions two of his comedies. The name occurs in an Attic inscription I. For the father, afraid of the special services to which he would be liable, 1 sold the property that he owned with the exception of the items I have mentioned — a piece of land in Cephisia, another in Amphitrope, and two work- shops at the silver mines, one of them in Aulon, the other near the tomb of Thrasyllus. How it was that the father became so well-to-do I will tell you.

There were three brothers in this family, Eupolemus, the gymnastic trainer, Arizelus, the father of the defendant, and Arignotus, who is still living, an old man now, and blind. Of these, Eupolemus was the first to die, before the estate had been divided ; next, Arizelus, the father of Timar- clms. So long as Arizelus lived, he managed the whole estate, because of the ill-health of Arignotus and the trouble with his eyes, and because Eupo- lemus was dead. By agreement with Arignotus he regularly gave him a sum of money for his support. Then Arizelus, the father of the defendant Timar- chus, died also.

In the first years thereafter, so long as the defendant was a child, Arignotus received from the guardians 2 all that one could 2 The same men would act as administrators of the undivided estate and as guardians of the boy during his minority. But after Timarchus was enrolled in the citizens' list, and had come into control of the estate, he thrust aside this old and unfortunate man, his own uncle, and made way with the estate.

He gave nothing to Arignotus for his support, but was content to see him, fallen from such wealth, now receiving the alms that the city gives to disabled paupers. AFFIDAVIT But perhaps someone may say that after selling his father's house he bought another one somewhere else in the city, and that in place of the suburban estate and the land at Alopeke, and the slaves and the rest, he made investments in connection with the silver mines, as his father had done before him.

No, he has nothing left, not a house, not an apartment, not a piece of ground, no slaves, no money at interest, nor anything else from which honest men get a living. On the contrary, in place and to receive from the state two obols each per clay for their support. Ken- yon's trans. Not only their handling of public funds, but every official act, was passed upon by a board of state 86 AGAINST TIM ARCH US, of his patrimony, the resources he has left are lewd- ness, calumny, impudence, wantonness, cowardice, effrontery, a face that knows not the blush of shame — all that would produce the lowest and most unprofit- able citizen.

But it is not only his patrimony that he has wasted, but also the common possessions of the state, your possessions, so far as they have ever come under his control.

You see for yourselves how young he is, and yet there is not a public office which he has not held, not one of them by lot or by election, but every one by purchase, in defiance of the laws. The most of them I will pass over, and mention two or three only. He held the office of auditor, and did the state serious injury by taking bribes from office holders who had been dishonest, 1 though his specialty was the blackmailing of innocent men who were to appear before the auditing board.

He held a magistracy in Andros, which he bought for thirty minas, borrowing the money at nine obols on the mina, 2 and thus he made your allies a ready source of supply for his own lusts. And in his treatment of the wives of free men he showed such licentious- ness as no other man ever did.

Of these men I call no one into court to testify publicly to his own misfortune, which he has chosen to cover in silence, but I leave it to you to investigate this matter. But what do you expect? If a man at Athens not only abuses other people, but even his auditors Aoyiorat. The findings of the auditors were sub- ject to review by a court. Ordinary interest rates ran from 12 per cent, to 18 per cent. By Zeus and Apollo, many a time before now have I marvelled at the good fortune of your city, shown on many other occasions, but not least in this, that in those days he found nobody to whom he could sell the state of Andros!

But, you say, although he was worthless when he held office alone, yet when he was associated with others he was all right! How so? This man, fellow citizens, became a member of the senate in the archonship of Nicophemus. In the same year in which Timarchus was a member of the senate, Hegesandrus, the brother of Crobylus, was a treasurer of the funds of the goddess, 2 and to- gether, in right friendly comradeship, they were in the act of stealing a thousand drachmas which belonged to the city.

But a reputable man, Pam- philus of the deme Acherdous, who had had some trouble with the defendant and was angry with him, found out what was going on, and at a meeting of the assembly arose and said, " Fellow citizens, a man and a woman are conspiring to steal one appears that they also had custody of any state funds that were for the time being unappropriated, the Opisthodomos of the Parthenon serving as their treasury. Scopeas drrervxe. Slk 7v MSS.

The man is our friend Hegesandrus there, a man now, though he too used to be a woman, Laodamas's woman ; as for the woman, she is Timarchus yonder. How the money is being stolen I will tell you. After he had given you this information, " What is it, fellow citizens," said he, " that I advise? If the senate sustains the charge against this man and expels him, and then hands him over to the courts, give the senate the usual testimonial ; J but if they fail to punish him, refuse to give it, and lay up this thing against them for that day. I beg you there- fore, fellow citizens, not to present the spectacle of showing resentment toward the senate, and depriving five hundred citizens of a crown because they failed to punish the defendant, and then members of the assembly.

After the adjournment of the assembly, the senate resumed its session. But, you say, though such is his record in the offices filled by lot, he has been a better man in the elective offices. You will recall that you sent him as an inspector of the mercenary troops in Eretria. You punished those who denied their guilt with a fine of a talent apiece, but him with half a talent.

Whereas the laws com- mand that thieves who admit their guilt shall be punished with death ; it is those who deny their guilt that are to be put on trial. In consequence of this experience so great became his contempt for you that immediately, on the occa- sion of the revision of the citizen lists, he gathered in two thousand drachmas. For he asserted that Philotades of Cydathenaeon, a citizen, was a former slave of his own, and he persuaded the members of the deme to disfranchise him. He took charge of the prosecution in court, 3 and after he had taken the sacred offerings in his hand and sworn that he had not taken a bribe and would not, and also elected by vote.

Aeschines’ Against Timarchus - ppt download

Kenyon's trans. And so he broke his oath and abandoned the case. To prove that I speak the truth please call Philemon, who paid over the money, and Leuconides, the brother-in-law of Philotades, and read the copy of the agreement by which he effected the sale ot the case. AGREEMENT Now what manner of man he has shown himself to be in his dealings with his fellow citizens and his own family, how shamefully he has wasted his patri- mony, how lie has submitted to the abuse of His own body, all this you knew as well as I, before ever I spoke, but my account of it has sufficiently refreshed your memory.

Two points of my plea remain, and I pray to all the gods and goddesses that I may be enabled to speak regarding them as I have planned to do, for the public good ; and I should like you to give attention to what I am about to say, and to follow me with willing mind. The first of these points is an anticipation of the defence which I hear he is about to offer, for I fear that if I neglect this topic, that man who professes to teach the young the tricks of speech 2 may mis- 1 The scholiast tells us that these gods were Apollo, Demeter, and Zeus.

My second point is an exhortation of the citizens to virtue. And I see many young men present in court, and many of their elders, and not a few citizens of other states of Hellas, gathered here to listen. Do not imagine that they have come to look at me. Nay, rather have they come to find out about you, whether you not only know how to make good laws, but also are able to distinguish between good conduct and bad ; whether you know how to honour good men ; and whether you are willing to punish those who make their own life a reproach to the city.

I will first speak to you about the defence. The eminent orator Demosthenes says that you must either wipe out your laws, or else no attention must be paid to my words. For he is amazed, he says, if you do not all remember that every single year the senate farms out the tax on prostitutes, and that the men who buy this tax do not guess, but know precisely, who they are that follow this profession. When, therefore, I have dared to bring impeachment against Timarchus for having prosti- tuted himself, in order that I may deprive him of the right to address the people in assembly, Demos- thenes says that the very act complained of calls, not for an accuser's arraignment, but for the testi- mony of the tax-gatherer who collected this tax from Timarchus.

Now, fellow citizens, see whether the reply that I make seems to you frank and straightforward. For your sakes pray let him give up such defence as that! But I myself will suggest to you, Timarchus, a different line of defence, which is honourable and fair, and you will adopt it, if you are conscious of having done nothing shameful. Come, dare to look the jury in the face and say that which a decent man ought to say of his youth : " Fellow citizens, I have been brought up as boy and youth among you ; how I have spent my time is no secret to you, and you see me with you in your assemblies.

Now if I were defending myself before any other set of men on the charge on which I stand accused, I think your testimony would readily suffice to refute the words of my accuser. For if any such act has been committed by me, nay rather if my life has exhibited to you even any resemblance to that of which he accuses me, I feel that the rest of my life is not worth living ; I freely concede you my punishment, that the state may have therein a defence in the eyes of Hellas. I have not come here to beg for mercy from you ; nay, do with me what you will, if you believe that I am such a man as that.

But the defence which Demosthenes persuades you to make is not for a free man, but for a prostitute — quibbling about when and where! For it is not the lodgings and the houses which give their names to the men who have lived in them, but it is the tenants who give to the places the names of their own pursuits. Where, for example, several men hire one house and occupy it, dividing it between them, we call it an "apartment house," but where one man only dwells, a "house. Ask not, then, where it was that you practised it, but make this your defence, that you have never done the thing.

But it seems that we are to have another argu- ment, too, concocted by the same sophist. For he says that nothing is more unjust than common report, and he goes to the market-place for his evi- dence, the sort of thing that is quite in harmony with his own life. He says first 1 that the apartment house in Colonus which is called Demon's is falsely named, for it does not belong to Demon. Again, speech as prepared for publication, after the speeches for the defence had been heard. Probably some of these replies were given extempore in court.

And Demosthenes by way of a jest presents himself as an example, for he poses as a man who knows how to indulge in pleasantries and to joke about his own manner of life. But, Demosthenes, in the case of votive offerings, houses, estates, and all dumb objects in general, I do indeed hear many names applied, ever changing, never twice the same ; for in them are no actions good or bad, but the man who happens to have become conuected with them, whoever he may be, gives them a name according to the greatness of his own reputation.

But in the case of the life and conduct of men, a common report which is un- erring does of itself spread abroad throughout the city ; it causes the private deed to become matter of public knowledge, and many a time it even prophesies what is about to be. So manifest and so far from being fabricated is this statement of mine, that you will find that both our city and our forefathers dedicated an altar to Common Report, as one of the greatest gods ; 2 and you commemorate news of a victory of Cimon's in Pamphylia, received at Athens the clay the battle was fought.

Pausanias r. She also is divine. For all who are ambitious for honour from their fellows believe that it is from good report that fame will come to them. But men whose lives are shameful pay no honour to this god, for they believe that in her they have a deathless accuser. Call to mind, there- fore, fellow citizens, what common report you have been accustomed to hear in the case of Timarchus. The instant the name is spoken you ask, do you not, " What Timarchus do you mean?

The prostitute? But she is a witness against whom it would be impiety even to bring complaint of false testimony. In the case of Demosthenes, too, it was common report, and not his nurse, that plays, nor do we find the Homeric phrase in the Iliad. Aeschines is smarting under the fact that Demosthenes, who, in the beginning of the negotiations with Philip for peace, had been on good terms with himself, has now caused his indict- ment for treason, and will shortly conduct the prosecution in court.

For, Demosthenes, if anyone should strip off those exquisite, pretty mantles of yours, and the soft, pretty shirts that you wear while you are writing your speeches against your friends, 1 and should pass them around among the jurors, I think, unless they were informed beforehand, they would be quite at a loss to say whether they had in their hands the clothing of a man or of a woman!

But in the course of the defence one of the generals will, as I am told, mount the platform, with head held high and a self-conscious air, as one who should say, Behold the graduate of the wrestling schools, and the student of philosophy! And he will undertake to throw ridicule upon the whole idea of the prosecution, asserting that this is no legal process that I have devised, but the first step in a dangerous decline in the culture of our youth.

The Athenian gentlemen did indeed "cultivate" the handsome boys and young men, and for most immoral purposes. The culture that the boys received was too often not tvnaiSevyia, but naiSepacrria. And he will pronounce an encomium on beauty now, as though it were not recognised long since ;is a blessing, if haply it be united with morality. For he says that if certain men by slandering this beauty of body shall cause beauty to be a misfortune to those who possess it, then in your public verdict you will contradict your personal prayers.

For you seem to him, he says, in danger of being strangely inconsistent ; for when you are about to beget children, you pray one and all that your sons still unborn may be fair and beautiful in person, and worthy of the city ; and yet when you have sons already born, of whom the city may well be proud, if by their surpassing beauty and youthful charm they infatuate one person or another, and become the subject of strife because of the passion they inspire, these sons, as it seems, you propose to deprive of civic rights — because Aeschines tells you to do it.

And just here I understand he is going to carry the war into my territory, and ask me if I am not ashamed on my own part, after having made a nuisance of myself in the gymnasia and having been many times a lover, now to be bringing the practice into reproach and danger. And finally — so I am told — in an attempt to raise a laugh and start silly talk among you, he says he is going to exhibit all the erotic poems I have ever ad- dressed to one person or another, and he promises to call witnesses to certain quarrels and pommel- lings in which I have been involved in consequence of this habit.

I do not deny that I myself have been a lover and am a lover to this day, nor do I deny that the jealousies and quarrels that commonly arise from the practice have happened in my case. As to the poems which they say 1 have composed, some I acknowledge, but as to others I deny that they are of the character that these people will impute to them, for they will tamper with them. The distinction which I draw is this : to be in love with those who are beautiful and chaste is the experience of a kind-hearted and generous soul ; but to hire for money and to indulge in licen- tiousness is the act of a man who is wanton and ill- bred.

And whereas it is an honour to be the object of a pure love, I declare that he who has played the prostitute by inducement of wages is disgraced.

The Consequences of Laughter in Aeschines’ Against Timarchos

How wide indeed is the distinction between these two acts and how great the difference, I will try to show you in what I shall next say. Our fathers, when they were laying down laws to regulate the habits of men and those acts that inevitably flow from human nature, forbade slaves to do those things which they thought ought to be done by free men. Again, the same lawgiver said, " A slave shall not be the lover of a free boy nor follow after him, or else he shall receive fifty blows of the public lash. But, I think, so long as the boy is not his own master and is as yet unable to discern who is a genuine friend, and who is not, the law teaches the lover self-control, and makes him defer the words of friendship till the other is older and has reached years of discretion ; but to follow after the boy and to watch over him the lawgiver regarded as the best possible safeguard and protection for chastity.

And so it was that those benefactors of the state, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, men pre-eminent for their virtues, were so nurtured by that chaste and lawful love — or call it by some other name than love if you like — and so disciplined, that when we hear men praising what they did, we feel that words are inadequate to the eulogy of their deeds. But since you make mention of Achilles and Patroclus, and of Homer and the other poets — as though the jury were men innocent of education, while you are people of a superior sort, who feel yourselves quite beyond common folks in learning — that you may know that we too have before noAv heard and learned a little something, we shall say a word about this also.